A Short Introduction to Counselling Psychology
Publication Year: 2009
A Short Introduction to Counselling Psychology brings together a wide range of relevant information on the theory and practice of counseling psychology, written through the lens of direct practitioner experience and incorporating a global perspective. This accessible text provides concrete information on historical developments in the field as a whole, on training requirements and paths, on careers and domains of practice, and on the kinds of tasks and challenges that practitioners deal with in different settings.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Social and Historical Context of Counselling Psychology
- Chapter 2: Philosophical Considerations in Counselling Psychology
- Chapter 3: The Professional Knowledge Base of Counselling Psychology
- Chapter 4: Professional Training in Counselling Psychology
- Chapter 5: Careers and Practice in Counselling Psychology
- Chapter 6: Current Debates and Challenges in Counselling Psychology
Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions[Page ii]
Series Editor: Colin Feltham
Books in this series examine the different professions which provide help for people experiencing emotional or psychological problems. Written by leading practitioners and trainers in each field, the books are a source of up-to-date information about
- the nature of the work
- training, continuing professional development and career pathways
- the structure and development of the profession
- client populations and consumer views
- research and debates surrounding the profession.
Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions are ideal for anyone thinking about a career in one of the therapy professions or in the early stages of training. The books will also be of interest to mental health professionals needing to understand allied professions and also to patients, clients and relatives of service users.
Books in the series:
A Short Introduction to Clinical Psychology
Katherine Cheshire and David Pilgrim
A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis
Jane Milton, Caroline Polmear and Julia Fabricius
A Short Introduction to Psychiatry
A Short Introduction to Psychotherapy
edited by Christine Lister-Ford
© Vanja Orlans with Susan Van Scoyoc, 2009
First published 2009
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC 1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2008929526
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-4642-1 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
About the Authors[Page vi]
Vanja Orlans, PhD, Dip. GPTI, AFBPsS, is a chartered counselling psychologist, a chartered occupational psychologist, a UKCP Registered Psychotherapist, a Foundation Member with Senior Practitioner Status, BPS Register of Psychologists Specialising in Psychotherapy, and Visiting Professor at Middlesex University. She has extensive training and experience in a range of approaches to therapeutic work, as well as in the understanding of group and organizational dynamics, and has been working with individuals and groups in many different settings for over 20 years. Vanja is currently Joint Head of the Integrative Department at the Metanoia Institute in London, and Programme Leader of the BPS accredited Doctorate in Counselling Psychology and Psychotherapy by Professional Studies (DCPsych), a joint programme with Middlesex University. She also runs a private practice in psychotherapy, counselling, coaching and supervision.
Susan Van Scoyoc, BSc, MSc, is a chartered counselling psychologist, a chartered health psychologist, and a Foundation Member with Senior Practitioner Status, BPS Register of Psychologists Specialising in Psychotherapy. She is currently Registrar for the Qualification in Counselling Psychology at the British Psychological Society and Past Chair of the BPS Division of Counselling Psychology. Susan is also an Integrative Psychotherapist with a special interest in relationships, and a registered ‘expert witness’ working in areas such as human rights, family law and cognitive testing.
What is counselling psychology? This is a frequent question, both from those who are seeking to understand the work of counselling psychologists and at times from counselling psychologists themselves. In the course of undertaking and working on this project we have had many long conversations in which we sometimes could answer this question and at other times became confused or unconfident. This left us curious about the links between our experience and the field itself. A number of themes emerged for us as a result of this reflective process and the research which we have undertaken for this book.
Firstly, there is the fact that counselling psychology appears to sit somewhere between scientific psychology, at least as traditionally defined, and the more creative realm of artistry, reflection and self-awareness. A series of polarities and related tensions appeared to inhabit the field – male/female, hard science/soft science, thinking/feeling, subjective/objective, doing/being, one theory/many theories.
Secondly, it appeared that a perspective on these tensions which could constitute a clear identity had yet to be defined, made more difficult in our view by the gradual separation of mainstream psychology from its parent discipline of philosophy. We came to recognize what a challenge it is to articulate a coherent professional identity; the field is so wide ranging, encompassing potentially so many approaches. It seemed to us that the identity of this profession would be better encapsulated by the capacity to hold tensions rather than to resolve them.
Thirdly, it seemed to us that our personal experiences of these issues could reflect both individual and institutional dynamics in that a number of issues could manifest at either level. We considered that it might be the challenging nature of these tensions and dynamics, and the resulting difficulty of articulating a conclusive or collective position, that contributes at times to the dilemma of making a clear choice and taking a stand, and to an apparent lack of clear ‘speaking out’ in favour of the field, at least in the wider professional community.
In researching areas for the different chapters we came to see how wide-ranging and complex the field of counselling psychology actually is. The profession sits somewhat uncomfortably in the family [Page viii]of psychologies – indeed, if we accept that metaphor we could view the system as a whole as a somewhat dysfunctional family. Counselling psychology itself is dogged by philosophical complexities, an enormously wide theoretical span, and a vast array of practice locations. However, we might also view counselling psychology as the ‘carrier’ of challenges and difficulties that should actually be shared with other members of the ‘family’. At the start of this project we felt somewhat daunted at the idea of attempting to find a way through these complexities. Having negotiated these challenges (for now) we have come up with what we think are some interesting ideas about these complexities, and have done our best to speak out in favour of a professional field to which we are both committed. In a sense we have attempted to rise to the challenge posed by Sequeira (2005) in reporting the comment from a meeting of the Division of Counselling Psychology in the British Psychological Society that as a profession ‘we are very good at listening but we have to start speaking!’ (p. 1). In this book we have set out the issues as we currently see them, where possible putting forward facts, and where we are dealing with opinion to make this clear to the reader. Some of our ideas may be contentious among our colleagues and in those cases we welcome more discussion and debate as the field of counselling psychology matures even further. At the heart of counselling psychology lies the recognition, and indeed the celebration, of the subjective and the intersubjective and our aim in writing this book was to mirror this process in the book itself.
In the following pages we tackle the issue of what counselling psychology is and might be. Each chapter is relatively self-contained, so we invite the reader to review the chapter descriptions in the contents and start wherever their interest takes them, returning to other sections at a later date. While we include much information of particular relevance to the professional situation in the UK, we also address a number of issues pertaining to counselling psychology in a range of countries around the globe. We have a strong interest in collaborating more consistently with colleagues from different countries, and in sharing challenges and difficulties as well as a vision for the field of counselling psychology. To this end we particularly welcome any comments or issues evoked by our ideas among colleagues in other countries. In Chapter 1, we set out the social and historical context of the field as a whole, both within the UK and internationally, consider some of the institutional factors and dynamics that surround the profession, and outline the values that are embedded in the practice of this work. Chapter 2 tackles the issue of the philosophical basis to counselling psychology, a matter which is [Page ix]currently a live and often contentious one in professional settings, especially in the context of accredited training programmes in counselling psychology. We review the historical separation of the parent discipline of philosophy from the discipline of mainstream psychology, consider a number of developments which have run counter to this trend, and review what we might broadly think of as current postmodern perspectives which have a relevance to the field. We conclude this chapter with a consideration of the location of counselling psychology within the tensions and debates highlighted.
Chapter 3 develops these ideas further and outlines the professional knowledge base that underpins the practice of counselling psychology in its many different forms. This chapter includes a review of the major traditions in the psychological therapies that practitioners draw on in this field, together with related research. We also highlight the role of reflexivity as a key characteristic of the profession, and consider the implications of this emphasis more generally for research and practice. Chapter 4 provides a review of professional training in the field of counselling psychology, with the predominant focus on the UK, but with a consideration also of global perspectives. We outline information on training structures, routes to qualification, university and non-university locations for training, as well as recent developments in curriculum philosophy and design. We highlight the current demands that face trainees, especially in the UK where training programmes are now required to offer doctoral level study, a change which carries a number of potential implications for the development of the field. In this context also we discuss the role of personal therapy and the related debates that this has thrown up over recent years. Finally, we highlight some of the challenges that trainees face, as well as requirements for on-going supervision and continuing professional development.
Chapter 5 addresses the issue of what qualified counselling psychologists actually do and outlines the many different settings in which the profession plays a key role, highlighting also the actual tasks and activities which are a part of each role and its related context. Our aim is to demonstrate the very wide range of work settings that are potentially available and relevant to qualified professionals, depending on their own interests and specific forms of training and development. In this chapter also, we include a number of vignettes from individuals actually working in the settings outlined. Our final chapter considers a number of key debates and challenges that are currently very alive in this professional field. We review the position of counselling psychology within the wider field of the psychological [Page x]therapies and address a number of political considerations which are currently facing the profession, notably the move towards statutory registration. We also consider the question of boundaries between the different helping professions, and some recent perspectives on training considerations. We conclude with some of our own personal reflections on this field. In the appendices the reader will find information on a range of resources relevant to the profession which will include resources from both the UK and other countries around the world.
The details included in the book are designed to be a resource for anyone who is thinking about training and working as a counselling psychologist – not just the bare facts – however, those can probably be gleaned from relevant websites. We also consider the implications of different facts, offering potential trainees an opportunity to reflect more deeply on what they might be undertaking in making a commitment to this field. Our reflections on current tensions and possible ways forward in the profession will, we hope, be of interest also to qualified practitioners and more senior colleagues, and importantly, to colleagues in other countries across the world. We have both worked in this field for a long time and have enjoyed the opportunity of setting out a number of key debates in this profession so that they can be taken further by the reader. As this book also takes its place as one in a series of volumes on different therapeutic professions, we hope that the distinctive nature of counselling psychology comes through.August 2008
A special thank you to our colleagues, Paul Hitchings and Patricia Moran, who provided comments and feedback on the developing manuscript. Our warm gratitude also to clients, supervisees, students and BPS colleagues who have contributed so much to our learning, to all at Sage who have been endlessly patient and supportive, and to our families and friends who have lovingly put up with our physical and psychological absence as we worked on this project.[Page xii]
Relevant Contact Information[Page 108]
The British Psychological Society
St Andrews House
48 Princess Road East
Leicester, LE1 7DR
Tel: +44(0)116 254 9568
Information on how to train as a BPS recognized chartered counselling psychologist can be obtained directly from the BPS or on http://www.bps.org.uk/careers
For details of whether you are eligible for GBR as a UK or overseas graduate contact the BPS or look on http://www.bps.org.uk/membership/grades/gbr1.cfm
BPS training routes in counselling psychology:
BPS Division of Counselling Psychology:
BPS Division of Counselling Psychology – Scotland:
BPS Division of Counselling Psychology – Wales:
BPS requirements for Continuing Professional Development (CPD):
BPS Division of Clinical Psychology and other divisions, special interest groups etc:
Health Professions Council (HPC)
[Page 109]184 Kennington Park Road
London, SE11 4BU
NHS careers information and pay scales
The Quality Assurance Agency for UK Higher Education (QAA) You can find descriptors for the different levels of higher education at: http://www.qaa.ac.uk/
British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP)
15 St John's Business Park
Lutterworth, LE17 4HB
UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP)
2nd Floor, Edward House
2 Wakley Street
London, EC 1V 7LT
The Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI)
CX House, 2A Corn Exchange Place
Dublin 2, Ireland
The American Psychological Association (APA)
750 First Street, NE,
Washington, DC 20002-4242, USA
Canadian Psychological Association (CPA)
141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5J3, Canada
USA and Canada: information about licensure
[Page 110]The Korean Counselling Psychological Association (KCPA)
Australian Psychological Society (APS)
New Zealand Psychological Association (NZPA)
Hong Kong Psychological Society's newest division is that of counselling psychology formed in 2006.
For details go to http://www.hkps.org.hk/www/
Chinese Psychological Society formed the Committee of Clinical and Counselling Psychology in 2001.
Professional Board for Psychology of the Health Professions Council of South Africa
The International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP)
European Association for Counselling Psychology (EACP)
European Association for Psychotherapy (EAP)
European Federation of Psychologists' Associations (EFPA)
References[Page 111]2007). ‘Practice what you preach’. A day in the life of an academic counselling psychologist. Counselling Psychology Review, 22(1), 5–7.(2007). The complexities of undertaking counselling evaluation in the workplace. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 20(2), 177–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070701410054, & (2000). Reflexive methodology: new vistas for qualitative research. London: Sage., & (American Psychological Association, Division of Counseling and Guidance, Committee on Definition (1956). Counseling psychology as a specialty. American Psychologist, 11, 282–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044771American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.1981). Does psychotherapy benefit neurotic patients: A re-analysis of the Smith, Glass & Miller data. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1203–1208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780360019001, & (1970). Intervention theory and method: a behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(2004). Reasons and rationalizations: the limits to organizational knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268078.001.0001(2007). Counselling psychology in India: at the confluence of two traditions. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 69–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00276.x(1975). Psychosynthesis. Welling borough: Turnstone Press.(1976). Transpersonal inspirationn and psychological mountain climbing. New York: Psychosynthesis Research Foundation.(1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(2007). Methods, outcomes and processes in the psychological therapies across four successive research generations. In W.Dryden (Ed.), Dryden's handbook of individual therapy ((5th Ed.). London: Sage.2003). Bridging evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence: developing a rigorous and relevant knowledge for the psychological therapies. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 10, 319–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.379, & (1988). PhDs, PsyDs and real-world constraints on scholarly activity: another look at the Boulder Model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 93–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.19.1.93, , & (1963). Thinking and depression: 1. idiosyncratic content and cognitive distortions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 9, 324–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1963.01720160014002(1964). Thinking and depression: 2. theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 561–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720240015003(1972). Depression: causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(2003). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders (, , , & associates (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.2005). Forms of intersubjectivity in infant research and adult treatment. New York: Other Press., , , & ([Page 112]2002). Infant research and adult treatment. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press., & (2005). Overcoming modern-postmodern dichotomies: some possible benefits for the counselling profession. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 33(3), 411–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880500179723, & (2000). Scientist-Practitioner ≠ Science + Practice. American Psychologist, 55, 249–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.2.248(1992). National conference on scientist-practitioner education and training for the professional practice of psychology. American Psychologist, 47, 71–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.1.71, & (2007). Counselling psychology in Israel: a virtual specialty in transition. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00277.x(1966). The social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Penguin Books., & (2007). Counseling psychology in France: a paradoxical situation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 131–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00281.x, , & (1986). Transactional analysis in psychotherapy. London: Souvenir Press. (First published in 1961.)(1952). Six existentialist thinkers. New York: Harper Torchbooks. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203322093(1957). A history of experimental psychology ((2nd Ed.). New York: Appleton Century-Crofts.1985). Family therapy in clinical practice. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.(2005). The history and development of gestalt therapy. In Woldt, A. L., & Toman, S. L. (Eds.), Gestalt therapy: history, theory, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225661, & (1995). Zen therapy: a Buddhist approach to psychotherapy. London: Constable.(British Psychological Society (2005a). Division of counselling psychology: professional practice guidelines. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2005b). Criteria for the accreditation of doctoral training programmes in counselling psychology. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2006). Code of ethics and conduct. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2007a). Definition of counselling psychology retrieved from http://www.bps.org.uk/careers/society_qual/counselling.cfmBritish Psychological Society (2007b). Child protection portfolio. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2007c). Psychologists as expert witnesses: guidelines and procedures for England and Wales. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society (2007d). Statement on the conduct of psychologists providing expert psychometric evidence to courts and lawyers. Leicester: BPS Psychological Testing Centre.British Psychological Society (2007e). New ways of working for applied psychologists in health and social care: models of training. Leicester: BPS.British Psychological Society Professional Affairs Board (1980). Counselling: the report of a working party. Leicester: BPS.1975). Leibniz: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2004). Counselling psychology in Australia. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(3), 287–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070412331317567, & (1970). I and thou (W.Kaufmann, trans.). Edinburgh: T. T. Clark.(1965). The search for authenticity: an existential-analytic approach to psychotherapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.([Page 113]1996). Counselling supervision: theory, skills and practice. London: Cassell.(1996). Predicting the effect of cognitive therapy for depression: A study of unique and common factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 497–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.497, , , & (1992). From theory to practice and back again: what does postmodern philosophy contribute to psychological science? In S.Kvale (Ed.) Psychology and postmodernism. London: Sage.(2005). Letting a hundred flowers bloom: counseling and psychotherapy in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 27, 104–116., , , & (2004). A short introduction to clinical psychology. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216453, & (Clarkson, P., & Pokorny, M. (Eds.) (1994). The handbook of psychotherapy. London and New York: Routledge.1996). Adlerian therapy. In W.Dryden (Ed.), Handbook of individual therapy. London: Sage.(1997). Existential thought and therapeutic practice: an introduction to existential psychotherapy. London: Sage.(2003). Existential therapies. London: Sage.(2003). Counselling psychology in primary care settings. In R.Woolfe, W.Dryden & S.Strawbridge (Eds.), Handbook of counselling psychology. London: Sage.(2001). Therapists’ beliefs about research and the scientist-practitioner model in evidence-based health care climate: a qualitative study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 135–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000711201160858, & (1986). Descartes. Oxford: Blackwell.(1991). Implications of therapist effects for the design and analysis of comparative studies of psychotherapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 20–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.1.20, & (2004). Informing strategic planning: a needs assessment of members of the Division of Counselling Psychology of the Psychological Society of Ireland. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.(1985). The origins of the psychological experiment as a social institution. American Psychologist, 40, 133–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.2.133(1990). Constructing the subject: historical origins of psychological research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511524059(1997). Naming the mind: how psychology found its language. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221815(1978). Writing and difference (A.Bass, trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(Department of Health (2004). Organising and delivering psychological therapies. http://www.dh.gov.ukDepartment of Health (2007). Cognitive and behavioural therapy for people with anxiety and depression: what skills can service users expect their therapists to have?http://www.dh.gov.uk1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph., & (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York and Hove: Brunner-Routledge.(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (2000). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.2002). A national imperative: public funding of psychological services. Canadian Psychology, 43(2), 65–75, May. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0086903(1946). The divisional structure of the APA. American Psychologist, 1, 336–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060039([Page 114]2000). Personal development in counselling psychology training: the case for further research. Counselling Psychology Review, 15(1), 12–21., & (2000). Perceptions of counsellor effectiveness: A study of two country groups. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 13(1), 51–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070050011060, & (1996). Rational emotive behaviour therapy. In W.Dryden (Ed.), Handbook of individual therapy. London: Sage.(2006). Just what is it that makes contemporary counselling psychology so different, so appealing?Counselling Psychology Review, 21(3), 22–32.(2007). Perspectives on counseling psychology: Portugal at a glance. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 119–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00280.x, , & (1992). Constructionist therapy: sense and nonsense. In S.McNamee & K. J.Gergen (Eds.), Therapy as social construction. London: Sage., & (2002). A qualitative evaluation of an employee counselling service from the perspective of client, counsellor and organization. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15(2), 201–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070210128991, & (1976). The biological basis of human irrationality. Journal of Individual Psychology, 32, 145–168.(1975). A new guide to rational living. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire., & (Ellis, A., & Whiteley, J. M. (Eds.) (1979). Theoretical and empirical foundations of rational-emotive therapy. Monterey, CA: Brooks Cole.1994). A practitioner approach to psychotherapy process and outcome research. In P.Clarkson & M.Pokorny (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy. London: Routledge., & (1996). Thoughts without a thinker: psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective. London: Duckworth.(2004). Becoming a reflexive researcher: using our selves in research. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.(European Association of Psychotherapy (EAP) (1990). Strasbourg Declaration on Psychotherapy of 1990. http://www.psychother.com/espstras-decl.htmEuropean Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) (1990). Optimal standards for professional training in psychology. http://www.efpa.be1952). The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 319–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0063633(1983). Wilhelm Wundt and the origins of psychology as an experimental and social science. British Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 289–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1983.tb00596.x(1987). Farewell to reason. London and New York: Verso.(1979). The genesis and development of a scientific fact. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2004). Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self. London: Karnac., , , & (2001). Madness and civilization: a history of insanity in the age of reason (R.Howard, trans.). London and New York: Routledge.(1961). Persuasion and healing: a comparative study of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press., & (1949). Modern science and its philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2007). Counselling psychology: the trade for the portfolio professional. Counselling Psychology Review, 22(1), 41–45.(1996). Personal construct therapy. In W.Dryden (Ed.), Handbook of individual therapy. London: Sage., & ([Page 115]1912). Recommendations for physicians on the psycho-analytic method of treatment. Collected Papers, Volume 2. (J.Riviere, trans.). New York: Basic Books.(1949). An outline of psychoanalysis. (J.Strachey, trans.). London: Hogarth Press.(1950). Project for a scientific psychology. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 1) (J.Strachey, trans.). London: Hogarth Press.(1960). The letters of Sigmund Freud. New York: Basic Books.(2006). On the making of a scientist-practitioner: a theory of research training in professional psychology. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, S, 3–16.(Gay, P. (Ed.) (1995). The Freud reader. London: Vintage. (Originally published in 1989 by W.W. Norton & Company Inc.)2001). Counseling Psychology (, & (2nd Ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College.2007). A week in the life of a counselling psychologist in a CAMHS context. Counselling Psychologist Review, 22(1), 11–18.(1987). Social theory and modern sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1991). Modernity and self-identity: self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2000). Psychotherapy supervision: an integrative relational approach to psychotherapy supervision. Buckingham: Open University Press., & (1968). Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Harmandsworth: Penguin Books. (First published in 1963.)(Gold, M. (Ed.) (1999). The complete social scientist: a Kurt Lewin reader. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10319-0002004). On the need for a new psychotherapy research paradigm: Comment on Westen, Novotny, and Thompson-Brenner. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 669–673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.669, & (1996). Psychotherapy practice and research: repairing a strained alliance. American Psychologist, 51, 1007–1016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.10.1007, & (1997). An introduction to object relations. London: Free Association Books.(1999). Walking on a rackety bridge: mapping supervision. Paper presented to the HERDSA Annual International Conference, Melbourne, July.(1993). Facilitating emotional change: the moment-by-moment process. New York: the Guilford Press., , & (1983). Object relations in psychoanalytic theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., & (Greenberg, L., Watson, J., & Lietaer, G. (Eds.) (1999). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: The Guilford Press.1986). The Jungian experience: analysis and individuation. Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books.(2003). Training and professional development in the context of counselling psychology. In R.Woolfe, W.Dryden & S.Strawbridge (Eds.), Handbook of counselling psychology ((2nd Ed.). London: Sage.1989). The age of unreason. London: Random House.(2001). The practice of counselling psychology in Ireland: a profile. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.(2002). Transactional analysis: a relational perspective. East Sussex: Brunner-Routledge., & (2000). Supervision in the helping professions. Buckingham: Open University Press., & ([Page 116]1962). Being and time (J.Macquarrie & E.Robinson, trans.). Oxford: Blackwell.(2008). Research design in counselling (, , & (3rd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.1995). Clinical supervision: a systems approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452224770(1989). The ability to mourn: disillusionment and the social origins of psychoanalysis. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.(1992). Redefining the science-practice relationship and professional training. American Psychologist, 47(1), 55–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.1.55, & (2007). Counseling Psychology in China. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 33–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00274.x, & (2001). Psychotherapy professionalization: The post-graduate dimension and the legitimacy of statutory regulation. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 17(3), 382–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.2001.tb00599.x(2005). The state regulation of counselling and psychotherapy: sometime, never …?Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 5(4), 176–189.(1986). The presenting past: An introduction to practical psychodynamic counselling. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1988). Psychodynamic counselling in action. London: Sage.(2004). Active ingredients in individual psychotherapy: searching for common factors. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21(4), 516–540.(1969). The archetypes and the collective unconscious ((2nd Ed.), (R. F. C.Hull, trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.1991). Between therapist and client: the new relationship. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.(1986). Comparative outcome studies of psychotherapy: methodological issues and strategies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 95–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.1.95(1963). A theory of personality: the psychology of personal constructs. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.(1980). Organizational paradoxes: clinical approaches to management. London and New York: Tavistock Publications.(2007). Counselling psychologists in the workplace. Counselling Psychology Review, 22(1), 32–34.(2005). The applied psychology revolution. The Psychologist, 18(12), 744–746.(Kirschenbaum, H., & Henderson, V. L. (Eds.) (1990). The Carl Rogers reader. London: Constable.1996). The religious and romantic origins of psychoanalysis: individuation and integration in post-Freudian theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1970). The structure of scientific revolutions ((2nd Ed.). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.1968). The language of the self: the function of language in psychoanalysis. (A.Wilden, trans.). Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.(1977). Écrits: a selection. London: Tavistock/Routledge.(2004). Counselling psychology: a Canadian perspective. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(3), 273–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070412331317576(2002). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. In J. C.Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press., & (2004). Introduction and historical overview. In M. J.Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (, , & ([Page 117]5th Ed.). New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc.2004). The efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In M. J.Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (, & (5th Ed.). New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc.1982). Smith and Glass’ conclusions stand up under scrutiny. American Psychologist, 37, 504–516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.37.5.504, & (2004). The future of professionalised work in Britain and Germany: counselling psychologists and psychotherapists. London: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society., , , , , , , , & (2006a). Counselling psychology: its influences and future, Counselling Psychology Review, 21(1), 12–24., & (2006b). The modern scientist-practitioner: a guide to practice in psychology. London and New York: Routledge., & (2004). Some unresolved issues in philosophy and psychology: their implications for therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(1), 107–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070410001666144(1992). Postmodernism and the human sciences. In S.Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism. London: Sage.(Lawton, B., & Feltham, C. (Eds.) (2000). Taking supervision forward: enquiries and trends in counselling and psychotherapy. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462184882004). Mental health: Britain's biggest social problem? Paper to the Strategy unit in the Cabinet Office, http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk(2007). The depression report. London: HMSO., , , , , , , , & (1971). Behavior therapy and beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1976). Multimodal behavior therapy. New York: Springer Publishing Company.(2003). Counseling psychology in South Africa: current political and professional challenges and future promises. The Counseling Psychologist, 31(5), 619–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000003256787, , & (2004). A history of psychology: main currents in psychological thought. London: Pearson Prentice Hall.(1996). A study of counsellor education and training. Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 8, 1–26.(2006). Getting the most out of personal therapy. In R.Bor, & M.Watts (Eds.), The trainee handbook: a guide for counselling and psychotherapy trainees (, & (2nd Ed.). London: Sage.2000). Counselling the community: the contribution of counselling psychologists to the development of primary care. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 13(4), 329–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713658503, & (2007). Internationalizing counseling psychology in the United States: a SWOT analysis. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 165–181., & (2007). Introduction to special issue on international perspectives on counseling psychology. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00271.x, & (2007). Counseling psychology in Hong Kong: a germinating discipline. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 51–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00275.x, , & (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: The Guilford Press.(1992). Postmodernism and subjectivity. In S.Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism. London: Sage.([Page 118]1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: is it true that ‘Everyone has won and all must have prizes’?Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760260059004, , & (1985). Therapist success and its determinants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 602–611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790290084010, , , , & (1984). The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge. (G.Bennimgton & B.Massumi, trans). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minneapolis Press. (Original work published in 1979.)(2004). The selection of candidates for training in psychotherapy and counselling. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 161–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753630410001686762(1999). Inquiry in conversation – questions, quests, search and research. Psychotherapy Section Newsletter, 25, 2–15 (British Psychological Society).(1998). Seduction, surrender, and transformation: emotional engagement in the analytic process. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.(1976). The philosophy of Brentano. London: Duckworth.(2006). Supervision: making it work for you. In R.Bor & M.Watts (Eds.), The trainee handbook: a guide for counselling and psychotherapy trainees. ((2nd Ed.). London: Sage.1994). Doing counselling research. London: Sage.(1999). Practitioner research in counselling. London: Sage.(2001). Qualitative research in counselling and psychotherapy. London: Sage.(1962). Phenomenology of perception. (C.Smith, trans.). London: Routlege & Kegan Paul.(2005). A critique of relational psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 22(2), 155–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0736-97184.108.40.206(1996). Psychoanalysis and gender: an introductory reader. New York: Routledge.(2000). Relationality: from attachment to intersubjectivity. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.(Mitchell, S. A., & Aron, L. (Eds.) (1999). Relational psychoanalysis: the emergence of a tradition. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.1999). Response to John Rowan's article: ‘a personal view: concerns about research’. Counselling Psychology Review, 14(1), 45–46.(Moya, P. M. L., & Hames-Garcia, M. R. (Eds.) (2000). Reclaiming identity: realist theory and the predicament of postmodernism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.2004). Counseling psychology in the United States of America. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(3), 247–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070412331317602, , , & (1998). Model training program in counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 26, 658–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000098264008, , , & (1999). On becoming counselling psychology in the Society: establishing the counselling psychology Section, Counselling Psychology Review, 14(3), 30–37.(2007a). The implausibility of researching and regulating psychotherapy. Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 7(4), 221–228.(2007b). Are we all mad?Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 7(3), 191–194.(Norcross, J. C., Beutler, L. E., & Levant, R. F. (Eds.) (2006). Evidence-based practices in mental health: debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11265-0002007). Integrative therapy: a practitioner's guide (, & ([Page 119]2nd Ed.). London: Sage.2001). The scientist-practitioner model and its critics. Australian Psychologist, 36, 164–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00050060108259649(1992). Projective identification and psychotherapeutic technique. London: Karnac.(2001a). A collaborative model of supervision. In M.Carroll & M.Tholstrup (Eds.), Integrative approaches to supervision. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers., & (2001b). Counselling the organisation, Counselling at WorkJournal of the Counselling at Work Division of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy), (33), 5–7., & (2003). Counselling psychology in the workplace. In R.Woolfe, W.Dryden & S.Strawbridge (Eds.), Handbook of counselling psychology. London: Sage.(2007). From structure to process: ethical demands of the postmodern era. The British Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 4(1), 54–61.(2008). Coaching and counselling in organisations: an integrative multilevel approach. In A.Kinder, R.Hughes & C.Cooper (Eds.), Employee well-being: a workplace resource. Chichester: Wiley.(Oxford English Dictionary (Concise) (2006).Eleventh editionedited by CatherineSoanes & AngusStevenson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Parker, I. (Ed.) (1999). Deconstructing psychotherapy. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462179621995). Deconstructing psychopathology. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221563, , , , & (2005). Coming of age? Overview of career guidance policy and practice in Australia. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 5(2), 217–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10775-005-8801-6(1932). Reply of a physiologist to psychologists. Psychological Review, 39, 91–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0069929(2000) Scientist versus practitioners: a growing dichotomy in need of integration. Counselling Psychology Review, 15(4), 3–7.(Pentonen, M. (Ed.) (1996). The Cambridge companion to Bacon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1981). The development of counselling psychology in Australia. Australian Psychologist, 16(1), 20–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00050068108254412(1951/1994). Gestalt therapy: excitement and growth in the human personality. Highland, NY: The Gestalt Journal Press., , & (1956). Hobbes. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1997). Psychotherapy and society. London: Sage.(2005). Registration, regulation and public protection. Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 5(4), 169–175.(1967). The tacit dimension. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.(2007). The current state and future direction of counseling psychology in Australia. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 7–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00272.x, & (Psychological Society of Ireland (2001). Division of Counselling Psychology (DCoP) Rules. Dublin: Psychological Society of Ireland.2008). The Sage handbook of action research: participative inquiry and practice. (, & (2nd Ed.). London: Sage.1994). Human science and counselling psychology: closing the gap between research and practice. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7(3), 235–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515079408254149(2005). Ripley's game: projective identification, emotional engagement, and the counselling psychologist. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78, 449–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/147608305X42703([Page 120]2006). Training and disillusion in counselling psychology: a psychoanalytic perspective. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 79, 613–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/147608305X89964(2006). Vocational psychology: using one of counselling psychology's strengths to foster human strength. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(2), 260–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000005281321, & (2002). Real world research. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.(1951). Client-centered therapy: its current practice, implications, and theory. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.(1961). On becoming a person: a therapist's view of psychotherapy. London: Constable.(1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1936.tb05248.x(2005). What works for whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research (, & (2nd Ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.2005). The transpersonal: spirtituality in psychotherapy and counselling ((2nd Ed.). London and New York: Routledge.1961). History of western philosophy ((2nd Ed.). London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.2002). Introducing Cognitive Analytic Therapy: Principles and Practice. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470713587, & (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: a relational treatment guide. New York: The Guilford Press., & (1998). Life as an embodied art: the second stage – beyond constructionism. In B. M.Bayer & Shotter, J. (Eds.), Reconstructing the psychological subject: bodies, practices and technologies. London: Sage.(Sandler, J. (Ed.) (1989). Projection, identification, projective identification. London: Karnac.1992). The patient and the analyst (, , & (2nd Ed.). London: Karnac.1965). Essays in existentialism. Secaucus, NJ: The Citadel Press.(1983). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. London: Temple Smith.(1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: the neurobiology of emotional development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(2003a). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.(2003b). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.(2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: The Guilford Press., , & (1995). The effectiveness of psychotherapy: the consumer reports study. American Psychologist, 50(12), 965–974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.12.965(2002). Authentic happiness. New York: Free Press.(2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410, , , & (2007). Current status and prospects of Korean counseling psychology: research, clinical training, and job placement. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 107–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00279.x, , & (2005). Editorial: ‘We are very good at listening but we have to start speaking!’Counselling Psychology Review, 20(3), 1.([Page 121]1992). ‘Getting in touch’: the meta-methodology of a postmodern science of mental life. In S.Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism. London: Sage.(1999). The developing mind: toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York: The Guilford Press.(Simos, G. (Ed.) (2002). Cognitive behaviour therapy: a guide for practising clinicians. Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge.1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11256-000(2007). The cultural context of therapy. Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 7(3), 131–145.(2002). Counselling psychology and the NHS: an individual perspective. Counselling Psychology Review, 17(91), 16–20.(1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752–760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.9.752, & (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press., , & (1994). Demystifying therapy. London: Constable.(2001a). The mirror and the hammer: challenges to therapeutic orthodoxy. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446211656(2001b). Counselling psychology: A hesitant hybrid or a tantalizing innovation?Counselling Psychology Review, 16(3), 3–12.(2005). The interpreted world: an introduction to phenomenological psychology ((2nd Ed.). London: Sage.2007). Practising existential psychotherapy: the relational world. London: Sage.(2004). Counselling psychology in New Zealand: the quest for identity and recognition. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(3), 301–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070412331317594, & (2007). Reflections of a counselling psychologist in private practice. Counselling Psychology Review, 22(1), 35–40.(1995). Graduate training in psychotherapy: are therapy outcomes enhanced?Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 182–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.2.182, & (2003). The interpersonal world of the infant: a view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology ((2nd Ed.). London: Karnac.The Boston Change Process Study Group (2003). On the other side of the moon: the import of implicit knowledge for gestalt therapy. In M. SpagnuoloLobb & N.Amendt-Lyon (Eds.), Creative license: the art of gestalt therapy. Vienna: Springer-Verlag., &1978). The representational world in psychoanalytic therapy. International Review of Psychoanalysis, 5, 247–256., , & (1992). Contexts of being: the intersubjective foundations of psychological life. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press., & (2003). Counselling psychology in context. In R.Woolfe, W.Dryden & S.Strawbridge (Eds.), Handbook of counselling psychology (, & (2nd Ed.). London: Sage.2002). What is a scientist-practitioner anyway?Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1277–1283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10111(2006). The local clinical scientist: a bridge between science and practice. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, S, 37–46., & (2007). A week in the life of an NHS counselling psychologist. Counselling Psychology Review, 22(1), 19–21.(1989). Sources of the self: the making of the modern identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.([Page 122]1995). An integrated response to trauma in three Post Office businesses. Work and Stress, 9(4), 380–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678379508256887(1997). Internal counselling provision for organisations. In M.Carroll & M.Walton (Eds.), Handbook of counselling in organizations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217009(The International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP): The Division of Counseling Psychology (Division 16). http://www.iaapcounselingpsychology.orgThe Law Society (2006). Family law protocol (2nd Ed.). London: the Law Society.1974). Kierkegaard. London: Gollancz.(1997). The Independent Practitioners Network: A new model of accountability. In R.House & N.Totton (Eds.), Implausible professions: arguments for pluralism and autonomy in psychotherapy and counselling. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.(1996). Le counseling. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.(1997). Guide du counseling. Neuilly sur Seine: Roche.(2002). Risk assessment and management. In G.Towl, L.Snow & M.McHugh (Eds.), Suicide in prisons. Oxford: BPS Blackwell., & (1988). Existential counselling in practice. London: Sage.(2004). The personal (psychologist) is political. Counselling Psychology Review, 19(3), 42–44.(2004). Counselling psychology and psychological testing: professional issues. Counselling Psychology Review, 19(4), 6–8.(2006). Defining characteristic or unrealistic ideal: historical and contemporary perspectives on scientist-practitioner training in counselling psychology. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 19(3), 229–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070600960449, & (2007). My role as a consultant counselling psychologist within the NHS. Counselling Psychology Review, 22(1), 22–26.(2001). The great psychotherapy debate: models, methods and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: Empirically ‘All must have prizes’. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 203–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.3.203, , , , , & (2007). A perspective on counseling psychology in Japan: towards a lifespan approach. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 97–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00278.x(1996). Kaunseringu shinnrigaku: kaunsera to hena surushakai (translation: Counseling psychology: the counsellor and changing society) ((1st Ed.). Kyoto: Nakanishiya Publishers.2007). Transforming a past into a future: counseling psychology in South Africa. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 152–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00282.x, & (1984). Counseling psychology: a historical perspective. The Counseling Psychologist, 12, 3–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000084122001(2006). Integral spirituality. Boston and London: Integral Books.(1978). The dilemma of counselling psychology. Australian Psychologist, 13, 33–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00050067808415564(1996). Personal growth: Rogerian paradoxes. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 24(2), 165–172., & (1998). The Vedic Personality Inventory: a study of gunas. Journal of Indian Psychology, 16(1), 10–17.(Woldt, A. L., & Toman, S. N. (Eds.) (2005). Gestalt therapy: history, theory, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225661[Page 123]1966). Behaviour therapy techniques: a guide to the treatment of neuroses. Oxford: Pergamon Press., & (1996). The nature of counselling psychology. In R.Woolfe & W.Dryden (Eds.), Handbook of counselling psychology. London: Sage.(2002). Freud, psychology and psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Review, 17(4), 45.(2006). A journey from infancy to adulthood: the story of counselling psychology. Counselling Psychology Review, 21(91), 2–3.(2006). The mental health consequences of dealing with self-inflicted death in custody, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 165–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070600811824, , , & (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books Inc.(1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: a schema-focussesd approach ((3rd Ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.2003). Schema therapy: a practitioner's guide. New York: The Guilford Press., , & (2007). Counselling psychology in Canada: advancing psychology for all. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(1), 20–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00273.x, & (2001). Investigation of counselling in China. Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 389–391., , & (