This is the first book to introduce the full spectrum of security and risks and their management. Author and field expert Bruce Newsome helps readers learn how to understand, analyze, assess, control, and generally manage security and risks from the personal to the operational. They will develop the practical knowledge and skills they need, including analytical skills, basic mathematical methods for calculating risk in different ways, and more artistic skills in making judgments and decisions about which risks to control and how to control them.

Target Vulnerability and Exposure

Target vulnerability and exposure

Having identified a hazard or threat (Chapter 4), we should identify the potential target and assess its vulnerability and exposure. The main sections of this chapter describe what is meant by target, vulnerability, and exposure.


This section defines target and introduces some simple ways to identify potential targets.

Defining Target

A target is the object of a risk or plan. The threat is the subject whose actions cause harm to the object. In the semantic frame risk two types of object are routine: a human victim (“the individual who stands to suffer if the harm occurs”) or “a valued possession of the victim” (Fillmore & Atkins, 1992, p. 82).

Pedagogy Box 5.1 Official Definitions of Target

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ...

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