Psychologists like to claim that Psychology is a science, yet, until now, the discipline has lacked any real scientific laws, has had no overarching scientific paradigm and has been blighted by poor replicability of research, all of which have dogged the discipline. Attempts to place Psychology under a single scientific umbrella, e.g. Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Biological Science, Social Science or Human Science, have all failed for a host of reasons. This unique book presents a single paradigm for all of Psychology within a framework of Natural Science. For example, it employs as a model an organising principle known in another scientific discipline for over a century, the principle of Homeostasis. Findings across the entire discipline including perception, learning, emotion, stress, addiction, well-being and consciousness are all shown to be consistent with a new paradigm based on this, and other principles drawn from natural science.

Learning, Striving, Inhibiting

Learning, Striving, Inhibiting

Learning, Striving, Inhibiting

Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation.

Edward Lee Thorndike


From the late 1800s for at least a century, learning was the dominant interest of experimental psychologists. This was an era of ‘Grand Theories’ designed to bring a new dawn to the Science of Behaviour and to humanity. The School of ‘Behaviourism’ would strive to explain all of behaviour. The animal laboratory was a crucible for a vast edifice of findings with hundreds of doctoral candidates and a thousand different variables. For all of this, we can thank one Edward Lee Thorndike (1874–1949) of Williamsburg, Massachusetts, a psychologist who pioneered ethology, theories of learning and pedagogy. Our focus here ...

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