A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities: A Guide for Educators


Randall B. Lindsey, Richard M. Diaz, Kikanza Nuri-Robins, Raymond D. Terrell & Delores B. Lindsey

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Introduction: Background, Challenges, and Opportunity

    Part II: Westfield Unified School District

    Part III: Next Steps

  • Praise for a Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities

    A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communitiesis one of the most authentic books I have ever read on how to be more inclusive and equitable to the LGBT school community. The reflection, dialogue, and going deeper sections provide educators with the opportunity to do the inside-outside work necessary to be a culturally proficient educator inclusive of LGBT colleagues, students, and parents/community members. This book contains numerous practical applications written in the context of the cultural proficiency framework, guiding principles, tools, and continuum that make it immediately applicable and user friendly for schools.

    Tracey DuEst, Diversity and Inclusion Consultant, Cincinnati, OH

    With the goal of genuine inclusion and equity for the LGBTQ community, this is a timely and superbly written book for educational leaders striving to support personal transformation and social change in their schools and beyond.

    Chris Brown, Assistant Professor, Brandon University, Manitoba, Canada

    Cultural competence as a construct requires a commitment to address more than race, ethnicity, gender, disability and socioeconomics. LGBTQ students are often bullied or excluded, are statistically over-represented among teen suicides, and have lower graduation rates overall. Because of fear, shame, and peer pressure, they often suffer in silence. The needs of these students are often overlooked because educators are unaware, uncomfortable, or poorly informed. The culturally competent school is proactive in its awareness of the needs of these students, its willingness to intervene, and its skills in working with LGBTQ issues.

    Nicelma King, Youth and Family Development Specialist, University of California, Davis

    Culturally proficient persons are urgently needed who will take the initiative to change prejudicial beliefs and educational practices, biased interactions, discrimination, or bullying directed toward anyone in the LGBT or broader community. This text enhances the critical reflection, will, and skills needed to help make cultural democracy a reality for all.

    John Robert Browne II, Education Consultant and author of Walking the Equity Talk, San Diego, CA

    LGBT students want to be respected and understood as individuals; not just as a member of a demographic group or other impersonal category. Our schools and districts should be a safe, healthy, secure and inclusive environment for all employees and students. We need to ensure that there is a teacher in every classroom who cares that ALL students are treated with respect.

    Jeff Chancer, Superintendent, Oxnard School District, CA

    The authors of this text apply their proven expertise of the deeply relational notions of Cultural Proficiency to the needs of school children marginalized by homophobia and heterosexism. Discussions of sexual orientation and gender identity are only rarely and controversially included in educational discourse, even while students such as Zac—quoted in the book's introduction—notes that, ‘I did not feel safe in my own school, a place where I am supposed to be able to be myself and learn who I am.’ In this text, the authors make it absolutely clear that school is the place for addressing issues of equity and for advancing a more generous and accepting society. Most of us have seen messages from the It Gets Better campaign, a project designed to bring attention and commitment to providing hope for lesbian, gay, transgender, bisexual and other bullied human beings. In this inspiring text the authors show how it gets better. And just as importantly, they explain why it must get better—because, according to Zac, the bigotry and intolerance ‘hurt me and it hurts everyone.’”

    Sheri Leafgren, Associate Professor, Miami University, OH


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    It was the summer of 1981, months before my final year of high school, when I first acknowledged my sexual orientation publicly to a group of friends and soon after to my family. The thought of returning to school in September frightened me, a return to the oppressed corridors of this smalltown high school where the taunts, ridicule, and aggression echoed daily. Up to this point, my existence was a façade to all except the very few I let behind the curtain on that summer evening. I may never know all the factors that contributed to my ability to “come out” at that time, but I can say for sure that, in part, the supportive and loving adults in my life—namely, my parents and teachers—created the foundation that would give me confidence in all aspects of my identity. Despite the prevailing culture in the Midwest at this time, I was able to emerge with a positive self-image intact.

    The school is a social system with structures and norms that embody the culture of the environment. The culture, commonly referred to as “the way we do things around here,” is displayed in the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the school community. It operates on autopilot. The social interactions and power relationships are clearly defined and reinforced regularly as we reward the expected behaviors. This is not all bad as the adults must maintain control of the school environment. But we make assumptions about the students in our classrooms and our colleagues with whom we work. I recall a conversation I had with a colleague early in my career. Toward the end of my first year, this teacher, who I was beginning to socialize with outside of school, said to me, “I think we have a positive climate toward gays and lesbians here, don't you?” My response was, “How do you know?” We cannot equate silence with acceptance. And we cannot make assumptions about our school environments, particularly about those who are the invisible minority—the LGBTQ students.

    My journey with cultural proficiency began during the first training session with our administrative team. Our skilled facilitators engaged us in a storytelling simulation. I sat at a table with colleagues I'd worked with for over five years and learned more about their backgrounds in that one day than I did in all the time I'd worked with them. I heard stories that shed light on the ways people operate—what drives their interests, their motivations, and their interactions with others. It was the beginning of a growth trajectory that impacted me personally and professionally. It started with a simple task: Tell a story that reveals something about you that nobody knows.

    It takes great force, a conscious effort on the part of skillful leaders, to redirect the momentum of the prevailing culture to one that is inclusive of everyone. In A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities: A Guide for Educators the authors offer guidance—a road map, if you will—to school leaders, teachers, and students to begin the journey of developing respectful schools for the invisible minority, for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning members of our community. You can enter the map wherever you are in your voyage. For those new to exploring sexual orientation and gender identity, the authors provide the historical background and issues of equity and equality one needs to set the context for this important topic. If you are exploring cultural proficiency for the first time, the essential elements are explained through the lens of equity and diversity. The case study and reflective questions will help you connect the concepts in the cultural proficiency framework to your personal and professional life.

    And the urgency could not be greater. Recent surveys of school climate indicate high incidents of bullying among LGBT youth, and many states are developing strict policies to protect all students from discrimination in schools. News headlines tell too many tragic stories of alienated young people who take their own lives. A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities: A Guide for Educators is not a quick-fix program; the authors acknowledge that no single curriculum can solve the issues of bullying and make the lives of LGBTQ students better overnight. I see this text as “beyond bullying.” That is, the authors move us beyond a reactionary approach toward a model that addresses the complex relationships and interactions that occur in our schools to provide a proactive framework for how we view ourselves, one another, and the world around us.

    The times we live in now are a far cry from 1981. The age of the Internet, Glee, and the U.S. Supreme Court's consideration of gay marriage might make the lives of our children easier than they were decades ago. But how do we know? Have we asked our students to tell us a story about themselves? And are we prepared to hear it?

    For anyone striving to create positive school cultures and inclusion for everyone, A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities: A Guide for Educators should be your go-to guidebook. Begin your journey now. Our children need you!

    TimothyKaltenecker, EdD, Assistant Superintendent, Byram Hills Central School District, Armonk, New York


    We are mindful and are grateful for the many people who have contributed to the completion of this book: the patient support and sacrifices of family, the contributions of professional colleagues, and the inspiration of friends. Our words here are to honor their support for this work.

    For me, Randy, it has been a growth experience to conceptualize and compose this book with Richard, Kikanza, Raymond, and Delores. To be able to work with friends who are also professional colleagues is one of the treats of my life. Our collective work on issues and topics of social justice is now in its fourth decade, and this book provides the opportunity for us to use the print medium to teach what we preach. To be able to write with Delores continues to be one of the joys of my life.

    For me, Richard, this represents another step in my journey. To be able to work with friends who are motivated by true compassion is an honor. For me to be able to share my journey in life with these friends and colleagues has been remarkable. Together I hope we are able to make others more aware of the need to speak up for the rights of all people in our community.

    For me, Kikanza, this book represents what happens when people who care about each other and the same social justice issues work together. Individually, we have all made contributions in this field; it is an honor and a privilege to be part of a collective that speaks out for oppressed, disposed, marginalized, and our personal struggles and still engages with the communities from which we emerged. More frequently than I like, I am reminded of my own growing edges; it is both a comfort and a source of personal strength to be able to learn and grow among friends.

    For me, Raymond, the production of this book has allowed me to reach deep within myself and examine if I really walk my social justice talk. Working with my four writing partners and discussing this work with practitioners, friends, and family has also provided me with greater understanding of how others view sexual orientation. I mostly became aware of how silent most people are on the topic and how that silence tends to make many members of the community invisible. Now is the time for all of us to stand up for justice for all of us.

    For me, Delores, cowriting this book has been another learning journey. I continue to learn about myself as an educator and grow as a writer. My cowriters and I knew this was the right time to write this book. I thank them for their expertise, their willingness to share their experiences, and their patience with me as a learner. I greatly appreciate and acknowledge the many educators with whom we work (the composite case stories) who continue to confront issues of inequity and injustice on behalf of students and employees. They, students and educators, are the people for whom we do this work. Thanks always to my husband, Randy, for being my cowriter and best friend.

    We appreciate the careful review of our manuscript provided by Rabbi Elliot Kukla. His first-person perspective informed this work in ways that support our journey to become effective educators.

    Our colleagues at Corwin have and continue to support our work in deep, authentic ways. Dan Alpert, our acquisitions editor, continuously serves as “friend of the work of equity” and embodies the commitment to social justice we associate with Corwin. Appreciation goes to Heidi Arndt, editorial assistant, whose high levels of support, responsiveness, and resourcefulness make the publication process proceed smoothly.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Charisza Santos
    • Graduate School of Education and Counseling
    • Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR
    • Shaun Travers
    • Campus Diversity Officer and Director of UC San Diego LGBT Resource Center
    • University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA

    About the Authors

    Randall B. Lindsey, PhD, is emeritus professor, California State University, Los Angeles and has a practice centered on educational consulting and issues related to equity and access. Prior to higher education faculty roles, Randy served as a junior and senior high school history teacher, a district office administrator for school desegregation, and executive director of a nonprofit corporation. All of Randy's experiences have been in working with diverse populations, and his area of study is the behavior of white people in multicultural settings. It is his belief and experience that too often members of dominant groups are observers of cross-cultural issues rather than personally involved with them. He works with colleagues to design and implement programs for and with schools and community-based organizations to provide access and achievement.

    Randy and his wife and frequent coauthor, Delores, are enjoying this phase of life as grandparents, as educators, and in support of just causes that extend the promises of democracy throughout society in authentic ways.

    Richard M. Diaz, MSEd, is director of the Riordan Leadership Institute, a program of the Los Angeles Junior Chamber of Commerce. Richard helps train business professionals to become board members of nonprofit agencies in the Greater Los Angeles area. Through his work, Richard has assisted many nonprofits to bring in new and diverse leadership to their organizations. Richard also consults with local nonprofits and their boards. He assists boards to review their mission and vision. Richard began his career as an elementary and middle school teacher and later supervised student teachers for Immaculate Heart College. He is a world traveler and lives with his partner, Gerry, of 23 years.

    Kikanza Nuri-Robins, EdD, MDiv, is an organizational development consultant based in Los Angeles. She helps her clients close the gap between what they say they are and what they actually do, focusing on leadership development, change management, cultural proficiency, and spirituality at work. Kikanza works in a variety of settings, including education, health care, criminal justice, and religion. She has spent most of her career teaching school or consulting with public school educators. http://www.TheRobinsGroup.org

    Raymond D. Terrell, EdD, is emeritus professor, School of Education, Health and Society, Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. He also served as a professor of educational administration and as Dean of the School of Education at California State University, Los Angeles. He began his career as a public school teacher, principal, and assistant superintendent in the Princeton City School District in Ohio. He has more than 40 years of professional experience with diversity and equity issues in urban and suburban school districts. Ray lives in Cincinnati, Ohio, with his wife Eloise. They both enjoy reading, writing, traveling, and spoiling adopted grandchildren.

    Delores B. Lindsey, PhD, is a recently retired associate professor from California State University, San Marcos. She has served as a middle grades and high school teacher, assistant principal, principal, and county office administrator. Her primary focus is developing culturally proficient leadership practices. Using the lens of Cultural Proficiency, Delores helps educational leaders examine organizations' policies and practices, as well as individual beliefs and values about cross-cultural communication. Her message to her audiences focuses on nurturing socially just educational practices, developing culturally proficient leadership practices, and using diversity as an asset and a resource. Delores facilitates educators to develop their own inquiry and action research. She relies on the power of story and storytelling to enhance learning experiences. She asks reflective questions and encourages group members to use questions as prompts for their organizational stories. Her favorite reflective questions are these: Who are we? Are we who we say we are?


    This book is dedicated to Dan Alpert

    You are our coach, colleague, and friend.

    Thank you for joining us, and often leading us, on our life's journey.

  • Resources

    Resource A.1: Book Study Guide: A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities: A Guide for Educators

    Randall B.Lindsey, Richard M.Diaz, Kikanza J.Nuri-Robins, Raymond D.Terrell, and Delores B.Lindsey
    Corwin 2013
    Part I. Introduction: Background, Challenges, and Opportunity
    Chapter 1: Setting the Context
    Content Questions to Consider
    • In what ways do you consider sexual orientation and gender identity as equity issues?
    • What terminology was new to you? In what ways are you now better informed?
    • What do you understand the purpose of this book to be?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What is your reaction to the intent of this book?
    • What are self-assessments about your cultural knowledge of who you are in relation to LGBT individuals and groups?
    • What is your reaction to examining and discussing sexual orientation and gender diversity in your school?
    Chapter 2: The Tools of Cultural Proficiency
    Content Questions to Consider
    • Name the Tools of Cultural Proficiency.
    • In what ways do you describe the inside-out process?
    • How do reflection and dialogue support the inside-out process?
    • Describe how and why culture is embraced as an asset to support Cultural Proficiency.
    • In what ways are the Guiding Principles as core values consistent with how you view yourself and your school?
    • Explain how the Guiding Principles serve to counter the Barriers to Cultural Proficiency.
    • In what ways will the Essential Elements provide you with “action” steps on your journey toward Cultural Proficiency?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What is your reaction to the Barriers Section? To the Guiding Principles as core values?
    • Describe the manner in which the Essential Elements are informed and supported by the Guiding Principles.
    • In what ways do the Essential Elements serve as standards for personal, professional behavior?
    • What is your reaction, personally or professionally, as you become acquainted with the Tools?
    • What more do you want to know/learn about Cultural Proficiency?
    Chapter 3: Equality and Equity Are Both Important, Just Not the Same
    Content Questions to Consider
    • What do you understand equality and equity to be? In what ways are they similar? Different?
    • What new insights might you have from the historical consideration of the terms equality and equity?
    • How does one move from recognizing barriers to engaging in proactive action?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What are your reactions or feelings about the description and discussion of equity and equality?
    • How do you describe personal responsibility for addressing issues related to oppression experienced by LGBT communities? In what ways are you involved?
    Chapter 4: Understanding Our History Helps Shape Our Future
    Content Questions to Consider
    • What new insights to our history might you have?
    • In what ways do you describe North American exceptionalism?
    • Describe “heteronormative worldview.”
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • In what ways does this chapter contribute to your knowledge of your values and assumptions about people whose sexual orientation or gender identity might be different from yours?
    • This chapter frames sexual orientation and gender identity as human rights issues in modern society. What is your reaction to this perspective?
    Part II. Westfield Unified School District
    Chapter 5: Creating Safe Space: Moving from Compliance to Advocacy
    Content Questions to Consider
    • In what ways do you describe moving from compliance to advocacy?
    • How might you describe bullying as an issue in our schools?
    • Describe key components in the two-phase approach to bullying.
    • How do the authors describe “safe space”? What examples do you have of safe spaces at your school?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What reactions do you have to the information about the extent of bullying and its harmful effects?
    • What information and data do you have about your own school? How do you react to the prospect of having such information about your school?
    • What are two or three goals you might want to set for learning about LGBT communities in your school?
    Chapter 6: Assessing Cultural Knowledge
    Content Questions to Consider
    • In what ways do the Essential Elements serve as standards for organizational policy and practice?
    • How might the Essential Elements be useful for you and your school?
    • How might you describe the Essential Element, assessing cultural knowledge?
    • In what ways does Superintendent Charlton describe assessing cultural knowledge?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • In what ways is Cultural Proficiency a journey?
    • How do you describe your understanding of assessing cultural knowledge?
    • In what ways can you and your school use the information from this chapter?
    Chapter 7: Valuing Diversity
    Content Questions to Consider
    • How might you describe the Essential Element, valuing diversity?
    • In what ways do you describe the four components of diversity?
    • What is the valuing diversity issue in the case story? Who needs help and why do you think it to be so?
    Personal Reaction Question to Consider
    • What were your thoughts and personal reactions about the information in this chapter? In what ways do your reactions inform your future communications choices?
    • In what ways might you and your school use the information from this chapter?
    Chapter 8: Managing the Dynamics of Difference
    Content Questions to Consider
    • How might you describe the Essential Element, managing the dynamics of diversity?
    • What is the dynamics of diversity issue in the case story? Who needs help and why do you think it to be so?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What were your thoughts and personal reactions about the information in this chapter? In what ways do your reactions inform your future choices for working in your school?
    • In what ways can you and your school use the information from this chapter?
    Chapter 9: Adapting to Diversity
    Content Questions to Consider
    • Please describe the Essential Element, adapting to diversity.
    • What is the adapting to diversity issue in the case story? Who needs help and why do you think it to be so?
    • What does it mean to be an “ally”?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What were your thoughts and personal reactions about the information in this chapter? In what ways do your reactions inform your future choices for you and your school?
    • In what ways can you and your school use the information from this chapter?
    Chapter 10: Institutionalizing Cultural Knowledge: You, Your School, and Your Community
    Content Questions to Consider
    • How do you describe the Essential Element, institutionalizing cultural knowledge?
    • You have been reading the phrase “inside-out” process throughout this book. What does it mean to you now? What has been added to your knowledge? In what ways does it apply to schools?
    • In the context of this chapter, in what ways do you describe transformation?
    • What is the issue in the case story? Who needs help and why do you think it to be so?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What were your thoughts and personal reactions about the information in this chapter? In what ways do your reactions inform your future choices for you and your school?
    • In what ways can you and your school use the information from this chapter?
    Part III. Next Steps
    Chapter 11: Moving from Bystander to Ally
    Content Questions to Consider
    • What are the four levels for becoming an ally? In what ways do the four levels align with the Essential Elements?
    • Why do conversations matter?
    Personal Reaction Questions to Consider
    • What are your reactions in responding to the progression of prompts in this chapter?
    • In what ways can you and your school use the information from this chapter?
    • Now that you know what you know, what are you willing to do?

    Resource A.2: The “Apps” of Cultural Proficiency

    The “Apps of Cultural Proficiency” is a pictorial representation of the Cultural Proficiency books. The original and core book, Cultural Proficiency: A Manual for School Leaders, now in third edition, presents our most detailed description of the Tools of Cultural Proficiency. The books radiating from the Manual also present the basic Tools in an applied manner relating to the books' intent (e.g., instruction, coaching, etc.).

    Resource B: Quick Glossary of Terms

    This is a list of commonly used terms in conversations by and about LGBT communities. It is not an exhaustive list; it includes words to support your continued learning.

    Coming outThe process of letting someone know that you are not a heterosexual.
    GayThe preferred term for homosexual males.
    GenderThe identification one has as a male or female. Gender is an internal expression; it cannot be assigned to a person by others.
    HeterosexismThe belief that heterosexuals and heterosexual relationships are superior to homosexual interactions and the power to impose sanctions against homosexuals.
    HomophobiaThe fear of homosexuality.
    HomosexualMales and females who are emotionally and sexually attracted to the same gender.
    LesbianThe preferred term for homosexual females.
    LGBTLesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
    Sexual identityHow one sees oneself physically as male or female or neither.
    Sexual orientationHow one is drawn to physical relationships with one's same gender or another is one's orientation.
    Sexual preferenceA term that implies that sexual attraction and gender identification is a choice rather than a biological fact.
    TransgenderMales or females who appear to be one gender physiologically but who identify as the other gender or neither gender; this may vary during one's life. A male who feels like a female inside is a transgender female.

    Resource C.1: Sexual Orientation Questionnaire: Chapter 8 Activity 1

    (Please respond candidly. You will not be asked to submit this questionnaire.)

    • What do you think caused your heterosexuality?
    • When and how did you first decide you were a heterosexual?
    • Is it possible your heterosexuality is just a phase you may grow out of?
    • Is it possible your heterosexuality stems from a neurotic fear of others of the same sex?
    • Isn't it possible that all you need is a good gay lover?
    • Heterosexuals have histories of failures in gay relationships. Do you think you may have turned to heterosexuality out of fear of rejection?
    • If you've never slept with a person of the same sex, how do you know you wouldn't prefer that?
    • If heterosexuality is normal, why are a disproportionate number of mental patients heterosexual?
    • Your heterosexuality doesn't offend me as long as you don't try to force it on me. To whom have you disclosed your heterosexual tendencies? How did they react?
    • Why do you people feel compelled to seduce others into your sexual orientation?
    • If you choose to parent children, would you want them to be heterosexual knowing the problems they would face?
    • The great majority of child molesters are heterosexuals. Do you really consider it safe to expose your children to heterosexual teachers?
    • Why do you insist on being so obvious and making a public spectacle of your heterosexuality? Can't you just be what you are and keep it quiet?
    • How can you ever hope to become a whole person if you limit yourself to a compulsive, exclusive heterosexual object choice and remain unwilling to explore and develop your normal, natural, healthy, God-given homosexual potential?
    • Heterosexuals are noted for assigning themselves and each other to narrowly restricted, stereotyped sex roles. Why do you cling to such unhealthy role-playing?
    • How can you enjoy a fully satisfying sexual experience or deep emotional connection with a person of the opposite sex when the obvious physical, biological, and temperamental differences between you are so vast?
    • How can a man understand what pleases a woman sexually or vice versa?
    • Why do heterosexuals place so much emphasis on sex?
    • With all the societal support marriage receives, the divorce rate is spiraling. Fifty percent of first marriages fail. The rate for second marriages is higher. Why are there so few stable relationships among heterosexuals?
    • Considering the menace of overpopulation, how could the human race survive if everyone were heterosexual like you?
    • There seem to be very few happy heterosexuals. Techniques have been developed with which you might be able to change if you really want to change. Have you considered trying aversion therapy?
    • A disproportionate number of criminals, welfare recipients, and other irresponsible or antisocial types are heterosexual. Why would anyone want to hire a heterosexual for a responsible position?
    • Do heterosexuals hate and/or distrust others of their own sex? Is that what makes them heterosexual?
    • Why are heterosexuals so promiscuous?
    • Why do you make a point of attributing heterosexuality to famous people? Is it to justify your own heterosexuality?

    From Steve Berman and Martin Rochlin: “A Reversal of Questions Frequently Asked of Lesbians and Gay Men,” January 1977.

    Revised by Griff Humphreys, May 1981. (These people were staff members of the University of California, San Diego, campus community and attended professional development facilitated by the authors.) Class handout, available at http://www.pflagwestchester.org/PrideWorks/2008_Handouts/HeterosexualQuestionnaire.pdf/

    Resource C.2: Unpacking the Knapsack of Sexual Orientation Privilege: Chapter 8 Activity 2

    Resource D: Community Resources: Justice and Equity for LGBT Communities

    ResourceDescription of Services/SiteLink
    ACT for Youth CenterACT (Assets Coming Together) for Youth Center of Excellence connects research to practice in the areas of positive youth development and adolescent sexual health.http://www.actforyouth.net/
    Advocates for YouthEstablished in 1980 as the Center for Population Options, Advocates for Youth champions efforts that help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. Advocates believes it can best serve the field by boldly advocating for a more positive and realistic approach to adolescent sexual health. Advocates focuses its work on young people ages 14 to 25 in the United States and around the globe.Creating Safe Space for GLBTQ Youth: A Toolkit http://www.advocatesforyouth.org
    American Library Association: Rainbow Books BibliographyThe Rainbow Project was created as a grassroots effort in 2007 to provide young people with books that reflect GLBTQ individuals, groups, and experiences. Although many more books with GLBTQ content are available to this audience than in the past, many of these are not identified ashttp://www.ala.org/glbtrt/rainbow/bibliographies
    ResourceDescription of Services/SiteLink
    such, necessitating such a bibliography. The Rainbow Project was originally a Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) task force but became affiliated also with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Round Table (GLBTRT) during the American Library Association Midwinter Meeting 2009.
    American Psychological Association: Healthy Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students ProjectThe Healthy LGB Students Project is funded by the Division of Adolescent and School Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-DASH) to provide capacity-building assistance to schools and other organizations that serve gay and bisexual young men at risk for HIV infection, especially African American and Latino youth. Our goal is to help schools, families, and communities promote the healthy growth and full development of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth.http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/programs/hlgbsp/index.aspx
    Center for Adaptive SchoolsSchools in which faculty members feel a collective responsibility for student learning produce greater learning gains than do schools in which teachers work as isolated practitioners. Teachers in Adaptive Schools are successfully responsive to the changing needs of students, standards and curriculum demands. The work of the Center for Adaptive Schools is informed by research in the new sciences, integrating this work with change models, best educational practices, learning theory, and research on group and adult development.http://www.adaptiveschools.com
    Center for Cognitive CoachingCognitive Coaching is a skill set that provides educators long-term investment in creating a culture that values the development of thoughtful teaching and administrative practices, self-directed learning and a support for mediation of thinking. Since human beings operate with a rich variety of cultural, personal, and cognitive style differences, skillful coaching supports these differences as resources for learning. Appreciating andhttp://www.cognitivecoaching.com
    ResourceDescription of Services/SiteLink
    working with style differences requires awareness, knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes for all involved.
    Centers for Disease Control and PreventionLGBT Youth Resources for youth as well as educatorshttp://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/youth-resources.htm
    CuéntameMission A place for Latinos! Whether you are a sports fan, movie fan, activist, artist, student, parent, organizer, Latino or not, award-winning novelist, astronaut, actor, painter, or anything else, all are welcome here! Tell us your story! Focus is not only on LGBT, but you can find some stories about gay and lesbian Latinos.http://www.facebook.com/cuentame#!/cuentame
    DeColores Queer Orange CountyMission: DeColores Queer Orange County creates opportunities for social engagement, community visibility, and political activism by organizing cultural events, support groups, civic actions, and annual conference. The Vision of DeColores Queer Orange County is to create empowering social, supportive, and political spaces for Queer Latin@s in Orange County.http://decoloresqueeroc.tumblr.com/aboutus
    GALE Learning CommunityThe Alliance for LGBT Education provides information and a platform for exchange for everyone who is concerned with education about the rights of lesbian women, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender people.http://www.lgbt-education.info/
    GLSENGLSEN, the Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, is the leading national education organization focused on ensuring safe schools for all students. GLSEN seeks to develop school climates where difference is valued for the positive contribution it makes to creating a more vibrant and diverse community.http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/home/index.html
    ResourceDescription of Services/SiteLink
    New Day Films Talking About Gay Issues in SchoolIt's Elementary takes cameras into classrooms across the U.S. to look at one of today's most controversial issues—whether and how gay issues should be discussed in schools. It features elementary and middle schools where (mainly heterosexual) teachers are challenging the prevailing political climate and its attempt to censor any dialogue in schools about gay people.http://www.newday.com/films/Its_Elementary.html
    Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays: PFLAGPFLAG promotes the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons, their families and friends through support, to cope with an adverse society; education, to enlighten an ill-informed public; and advocacy, to end discrimination and to secure equal civil rights. Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays provides opportunity for dialogue about sexual orientation and gender identity and acts to create a society that is healthy and respectful of human diversity.http://community.pflag.org/Page.aspx?pid=194&srcid=-2
    Safe Schools CoalitionThe Safe Schools Coalition is an international public-private partnership in support of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth. Resources for K–12 Teachers & Curriculum Specialist Classroom Resources (books, curricula, videos, websites and music)http://www.safeschoolscoalition.org/RG-teachers_k-12.html
    Story of Jorge Gutierrez Who Is Undocumented and QueerGreat video of undocumented queer Latino who is working to get the voices of the queer undocumented Latinos heard.http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/14/undocumented-queer-latino-teens_n_1270994.html
    The Latino Equality AllianceThe Latino Equality Alliance (LEA) is a broad-based coalition made up of organizations serving LGBT Latino populations, ally organizations, and individuals deeply rooted in both the LGBT and Latino communities.http://www.latinoequalityalliance.com/About
    ResourceDescription of Services/SiteLink
    LEA is active in promoting community activism and awareness throughout Los Angeles County.
    The Learning Network: Teaching and Learning With the New York TimesA collection of New York Times and Learning Network materials that includes lesson plans, Student Opinion questions and other teaching materials, along with Times multimedia and feature articles, including historical articles published since 1980.http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/22/teaching-and-learning-about-gay-history-and-issues/
    xQsíMagazineThe mission of xQsí Magazine is simple. We want to publish an LGBTQ Latin@ multimedia publication that reexamines identity, guides critical dialogue, and inspires political action through content that reflects the diversity and dignity of our community. We believe in our community. We have a vision for our community. We want to live in a world where LGBTQ Latin@s fully express their true voice and are acknowledged, embraced, and celebrated.http://xqsimagazine.com/
    2009 Directory of LGBTQ People of Color Organizations and Projects inThis directory addresses autonomous LGBT People of Color Organizations, led by LGBTQ people of color, as well as programs and projects for LGBTQ People of Color housed in broader-themed organizations.http://www.lgbtfunders.org/files/FLGI_POC_Dirctry_2009.pdf

    Resource E: Cultural Proficiency Books' Essential Questions

    BookAuthorsFocus and Essential Questions
    Cultural Proficiency: A Manual for School Leaders, 3rd ed., 2009Randall B. Lindsey, Kikanza J. Nuri-Robins, Raymond D. TerrellThis book is an introduction to Cultural Proficiency. The book provides readers with extended discussion of each of the Tools and the historical framework for diversity work.
    • What is Cultural Proficiency? How does Cultural Proficiency differ from other responses to diversity?
    • In what ways do I incorporate the Tools of Cultural Proficiency into my practice?
    • How do I use the resources and activities to support professional development?
    • How do I identify barriers to student learning?
    • How do the Guiding Principles and Essential Elements support better education for students?
    • What does the “inside-out” process mean for me as an educator?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Instruction: A Guide for People Who Teach, 3rd ed., 2012Kikanza J. Nuri-Robins, Delores B. Lindsey, Randall B. Lindsey, Raymond D. TerrellThis book focuses on the five Essential Elements and can be helpful to anyone in an instructional role. This book can be used as a workbook for a study group.
    • What does it mean to be a culturally proficient instructor?
    • How do I incorporate Cultural Proficiency into a school's learning community processes?
    • How do we move from “mind-set” or “mental model” to a set of practices in our school?
    • How does my “cultural story” support being effective as an educator with my students?
    • In what ways might we apply the Maple View Story to our learning community?
    • In what ways can I integrate the Guiding Principles of Cultural Proficiency with my own values about learning and learners?
    • In what ways do the Essential Elements as standards inform and support our work with the Common Core standards?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    The Culturally Proficient School: An Implementation Guide for School Leaders, 2005 (2nd edition due 2013).Randall B. Lindsey, Laraine M. Roberts, Franklin CampbellJonesThis book guides readers to examine their schools as cultural organizations and to design and implement approaches to dialogue and inquiry.
    • In what ways do Cultural Proficiency and school leadership help me close achievement gaps?
    • What are the communication skills I need to master to support my colleagues when focusing on achievement gap topics?
    • How do “transactional” and “transformational” changes differ and inform closing achievement gaps in my school/district?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Coaching: Supporting Educators to Create Equitable Schools, 2007Delores B. Lindsey, Richard S. Martinez, Randall B. LindseyThis book aligns the Essential Elements with Costa and Garmston's Cognitive Coaching model. The book provides coaches, teachers, and administrators a personal guidebook with protocols and maps for conducting conversations that shift thinking in support of all students achieving at levels higher than ever before.
    • What are the coaching skills I need in working with diverse student populations?
    • In what ways do the Tools of Cultural Proficiency and Cognitive Coaching's States of Mind support my addressing achievement issues in my school?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Inquiry: A Lens for Identifying and Examining Educational Gaps , 2008Randall B. Lindsey, Stephanie M. Graham, R. Chris Westphal, Jr., Cynthia L. JewThis book uses protocols for gathering and analyzing student achievement and access data. Rubrics for gathering and analyzing data about educator practices are also presented. A CD accompanies the book for easy downloading and use of the data protocols.
    • How do we move from the “will” to educate all children to actually developing our “skills” and doing so?
    • In what ways do we use the various forms of student achievement data to inform educator practice?
    • In what ways do we use access data (e.g., suspensions, absences, enrollment in special education or gifted classes) to inform schoolwide practices?
    • How do we use the four rubrics to inform educator professional development?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Leadership: The Personal Journey Begins Within , 2009Raymond D. Terrell, Randall B. LindseyThis book guides the reader through the development of a cultural autobiography as a means to becoming an increasingly effective leader in our diverse society. The book is an effective tool for use by leadership teams.
    • How did I develop my attitudes about others' cultures?
    • When I engage in intentional cross-cultural communication, how can I use those experiences to heighten my effectiveness?
    • In what ways can I grow into being a culturally proficient leader?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Learning Communities: Confronting Inequities Through Collaborative Curiosity , 2009Delores B. Lindsey, Linda D. Jungwirth Jarvis V. N. C. Pahl, Randall B. LindseyThis book provides readers a lens through which to examine the purpose, the intentions, and the progress of learning communities to which they belong or that they wish to develop. School and district leaders are provided protocols, activities, and rubrics to engage in actions focused on the intersection of race, ethnicity, gender, social class, sexual orientation and identity, faith, and ableness with the disparities in student achievement.
    • What is necessary for a learning community to become a “culturally proficient learning community”?
    • What is organizational culture and how do I describe my school's culture in support of equity and access?
    • What are “curiosity” and “collaborative curiosity” and how do I foster them at my school/district?
    • How will “breakthrough questions” enhance my work as a learning community member and leader?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    The Cultural Proficiency Journey: Moving Beyond Ethical Barriers Toward Profound School Change, 2010Franklin CampbellJones, Brenda CampbellJones, Randall B. LindseyThis book explores cultural proficiency as an ethical construct. It makes transparent the connection between observable behavior and values, assumptions, and beliefs, making change possible and sustainable. The book is appropriate for book study teams.
    • In what ways does “moral consciousness” inform and support my role as an educator?
    • How do a school's “core values” become reflected in assumptions held about students?
    • What steps do I take to ensure that my school and I understand any low expectations we might have?
    • How do we recognize that our low expectations serve as ethical barriers?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Education: An Asset-Based Response to Conditions of Poverty, 2010Randall B. Lindsey, Michelle S. Karns, Keith MyattThis book is written for educators to learn how to identify and develop the strengths of students from low-income backgrounds. It is an effective learning community resource to promote reflection and dialogue.
    • What are “assets” that students bring to school?
    • How do we operate from an “assets-based” perspective?
    • What are my and my school's expectations about students from low-income and impoverished backgrounds?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    Culturally Proficient Collaboration: Use and Misuse of School Counselors, 2011Diana L. Stephens, Randall B. LindseyThis book uses the lens of Cultural Proficiency to frame the American Association of School Counselor's performance standards and Education Trust's Transforming School Counseling Initiative as means for addressing issues of access and equity in schools in collaborative school leadership teams.
    • How do counselors fit into achievement-related conversations with administrators and teachers?
    • What is the “new role” for counselors?
    • How does this “new role” differ from existing views of school counselors?
    • What is the role of site administrators in this new role of school counselor?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    A Culturally Proficient Society Begins in School: Leadership for Equity, 2011Carmella S. Franco, Maria G. Ott, Darline P. RoblesThis book frames the life stories of three superintendents through the lens of Cultural Proficiency. The reader is provided the opportunity to design or modify his or her own leadership-for-equity plan.
    • In what ways is the role of school superintendent related to equity issues?
    • Why is this topic important to me as a superintendent or aspiring superintendent?
    • What are the leadership characteristics of a culturally proficient school superintendent?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    The Best of Corwin: Equity, 2012Randall B. Lindsey, Ed.This edited book provides a range of perspectives of published chapters from prominent authors on topics of equity, access, and diversity. It is designed for use by school study groups.
    • In what ways do these readings support our professional learning?
    • How might I use these readings to engage others in learning conversations to support all students' learning and all educators educating all students?
    Culturally Proficient Practice: Supporting Educators of English Learning Students, 2012Reyes L. Quezada, Delores B. Lindsey, Randall B. LindseyThis book guides readers to apply the five Essential Elements of Cultural Competence to their individual practice and their school's approaches to equity. The book works well for school study groups.
    • In what ways do I foster support for the education of English learning students?
    • How can I use action research strategies to inform my practice with English learning students?
    • In what ways might this book support all educators in our district/school?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?
    A Culturally Proficient Response to LGBT Communities: A Guide for Educators, 2013Randall B. Lindsey, Richard M. Diaz, Kikanza J. Nuri-Robins, Raymond D. Terrell, Delores B. LindseyThis book guides the reader to understand sexual orientation in a way that provides for the educational needs of all students. The reader explores values, behaviors, policies, and practices that affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students, educators, and parents/guardians.
    • How do I foster support for LGBT colleagues, students, and parents/guardians?
    • In what ways does our school show that it values LGBT members?
    • How can I create a safe environment for all students to learn?
    • To what extent is my school an environment where it is safe for the adults to be open about their sexual orientation?
    • How do I reconcile my attitudes toward religion and sexuality with my responsibilities as a PreK–12 educator?
    • How do I foster challenging conversations with colleagues?
    • How do I extend my own learning?

    References and Further Readings

    Badgett, M. V. Lee. (2012, February). The impact of extending sexual orientation and gender identify non-discrimination requirements to federal contractors. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA School of Law, Williams Institute
    Blackburn, V. Mollie, Clark, T. Caroline, Kenney, M. Lauren, & Smith, M. Jill (Eds.). (2010). Acting out: Combating homophobia through teacher activism. New York, NY: Teachers College Press
    Bochenek, Michael, & Brown, A. Widney. (2001). Hatred in the hallways: Violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students in U.S. schools. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch
    CampbellJones, Franklin, CampbellJones, Brenda, & Lindsey, B. Randall (2010). The cultural proficiency journey: Moving beyond ethical barriers toward profound school change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Campos, David. (2005). Understanding gay and lesbian youth: Lessons for straight school teachers, counselors, and administrators. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education
    Chittister, Joan. (2010, July 26). Ideas in passing: To be a moral force in the world [Weblog message]. Retrieved from http://www.benetvision.org/Ideas_In_Passing/07_26_10.html
    Corbin, K. Linda (2011). Surviving high school in a heteronormative culture (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Redlands, Redlands, CA.
    Cross, L. Terry (1989). Toward a culturally competent system of care. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Program, Child and Adolescent Service System Program
    Deal, A. Terrence, & Kennedy, A. Allan (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley
    DeWitt, M. Peter (2012). Dignity for all: Safeguarding LGBT students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Dilts, Robert. (1990). Changing belief systems with NLP. Capitola, CA: Meta
    Dilts, Robert. (1994). Effective presentation skills. Capitola, CA: Meta
    Dixon, Robin. (2012, June 8). [Obituary for Philip Tobias, 1925–2012]. Los Angeles Times, p. AA6.
    Eisner, W. Elliot (2001). What does it mean to say a school is doing well?Phi Delta Kappan, 82(5), 367–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172170108200506
    Evans, N. J., & Washington, J. (2010). Becoming an ally: A new examination. In MaurianneAdams, Warren J.Blumenfeld, Carmelita (Rosie)Castañeda, Heather W.Hackman, MadelinePeters, & XimenaZúñiga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 413–421). New York, NY: Routledge
    Faith-based tolerance. (2012, February 5). Los Angeles Times, p. A23.
    Fullan, Michael. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
    Garmston, J. Robert, & Wellman, M. Bruce (1999). The adaptive school: A sourcebook for developing collaborative groups. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon
    Hall, M. (2010). Facilitating visibility of LGBTQ issues in public schools: Teacher resistance and teachable moments. In M. V.Blackburn, C. T.Clark, L. M.Kenney, & J. M.Smith (Eds.), Acting out! Combating homophobia through teacher activism (pp. 103–113). New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University
    Jeppson, Jandy, with Myers-Walls, A. Judith (2010). Provider-parent partnerships: Child growth and development. Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Extension, http://www.extension.purdue.edu/providerparent/Child%20Growth-Development/Main-CGD.htm
    Kosciw, G. Joseph, Greytak, A. Emily, Bartkiewicz, J. Mark, Boesen, J. Madelyn, & Palmer, A. Neal (2012). The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation's schools. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network
    Kosciw, G. Joseph, Greytak, A. Emily, Diaz, M. Elizabeth, & Bartkiewicz, J. Mark (2010). The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation's schools. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network
    Lindsey, B. Delores, Jungwirth, D. Linda, Pahl, Jarvis V. N. C., & Lindsey, B. Randall (2009). Culturally proficient learning communities: Confronting inequities through collaborative curiosity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Lindsey, B. Delores, Martinez, S. Richard, & Lindsey, B. Randall (2007). Culturally proficient coaching: Supporting educators to create equitable schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
    Lindsey, B. Randall, Karns, S. Michelle, & Myatt, Keith. (2010). Culturally proficient education: An asset-based response to conditions of poverty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Lindsey, B. Randall, Nuri-Robins, Kikanza, & Terrell, D. Raymond (1999). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Lindsey, B. Randall, Nuri-Robins, Kikanza, & Terrell, D. Raymond (2005). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Lindsey, B. Randall, Nuri-Robins, Kikanza, & Terrell, D. Raymond (2009). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Lindsey, B. Randall, Roberts, M. Laraine, & CampbellJones, Franklin. (2005). The culturally proficient school: An implementation guide for school leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
    McIntosh, Peggy. (1988). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women's studies (Working paper No. 189). Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College
    Miller, Neil. (2006). Out of the past: Gay and lesbian history from 1869 to the present. New York, NY: Alyson Books
    Murray, O. Stephen (2000). Homosexualities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
    Nuri-Robins, J. Kikanza, Lindsey, B. Delores, Lindsey, B. Randall, & Terrell, D. Raymond (2012). Culturally proficient instruction: A guide for people who teach (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Olewus, Dan. (1993). Bullying in schools: Facts and interventions. Bergen, Norway: Research Centre for Health Promotion Retrieved from http://oud.nigz.nl/upload/presentatieolweus.pdf
    Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). Realizing the promise of diversity: Ontario's equity and inclusive education strategy. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Educationhttp://www.edu.gov.on.ca
    Petrosino, Anthony, Guckenburg, Sarah, DeVoe, Jill, & Hanson, L. Thomas (2010). What characteristics of bullying, bullying victims, and schools are associated with increased reporting of bullying to school officials?San Francisco, CA: WestEd Available at http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/rs/1042
    Quezada, L. Reyes, Lindsey, B. Delores, & Lindsey, B. Randall (2012). Culturally proficient practice: Supporting educators of English learning students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Robers, Simone, Zhang, Jijun, & Truman, Jennifer. (2010). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2010 (NCES 2011-002/ NCJ 230812). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
    Schein, Edgar. (1992). Organization culture and leadership (
    2nd ed.
    ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
    Schein, Edgar. (2004). Organization culture and leadership (
    3rd ed.
    ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
    Schein, Edgar. (2010). Organization culture and leadership (
    4th ed.
    ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
    Senge, M. Peter, Cambron-McCabe, H. Nelda, Lucas, Timothy, Smith, Bryan, Dutton, Janis, & Kleiner, Art (Eds.). (2012). Schools that learn: A fifth discipline fieldbook for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education. New York, NY: Crown Business
    Shulman, Lee. (2012). The six commonplaces of every profession. HML Notes [Weblog]. Port Ludlow, WA: The Horace Mann League. http://www.horacemannleague.blogspot.com/?utm_source=HML+Postings+for+March+25%2C+2013&utm_campaign=hml&utm_medium=email
    Sue, Derald Wing. (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender and sexual orientation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
    Sullivan, K. Michael (2008). Homophobia, history, and homosexuality: Trends for sexual minorities. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 8(2/3), 247–260. doi:10.1300/J137v08n02_01
    Terrell, D. Raymond, & Lindsey, B. Randall (2009). Culturally proficient leadership: The personal journey begins within. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    U.N. Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. (2012). Born free and equal: Sexual orientation and gender identity in international human rights law (HR/PUB/12/06). New York, NY: United Nations
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012a). Components in state antibullying laws. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/laws/key-components/
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012b). What is bullying? Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/index.html
    Vaill, B. Peter (1966). Learning as a way of being: Strategies for survival in a world of permanent white water. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
    Wagner, Tony, Kegan, Robert, Lahey, Lisa Laskow, Lemons, W. Richard, Garnier, Jude, Helsing, Deborah, … Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber. (2006). Change leadership: A practical guide to transforming our schools. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley
    Webber, K. Carlisle (2010). Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and questioning teen literature: A guide to reading interests. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited
    Wheatley, J. Margaret (2002). Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope to the future. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler
    Zander, Rosamund Stone, & Zander, Benjamin. (2000). The art of possibility: Transforming professional and personal life. New York, NY: Penguin

    CORWIN: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”

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