A Critical Introduction to Coaching and Mentoring: Debates, Dialogues and Discourses


David E Gray, Bob Garvey & David A Lane

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    About the Authors

    David E. Gray (BSc Econ., MA Ed., MSc, Cert Ed., PhD, FRSA) is Professor of Leadership and Organisational Behaviour at the University of Greenwich. His research interests, and publication record, include research methods, management learning (particularly coaching and mentoring), professional identity, action learning, reflective learning, management learning in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the factors that contribute to SME success. He has published books (e.g., Doing Research in the Real World, 3rd edn, 2014) and articles on research methods, work-based learning, and coaching and mentoring. David has led a number of EU-funded research programmes, including one examining the impact of coaching on the resilience of unemployed managers in their job-searching behaviours and another on how action learning can sustain unemployed managers in starting their own business. He is currently completing a global survey into the professional identity of coaches.

    Bob Garvey holds the Chair in Business Education at York St John Business School. He is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and of the Royal Society of Arts and is one of Europe’s leading academic practitioners of mentoring and coaching. Bob has extensive experience in working across many sectors of social and economic activity. This includes both large and small business and the public and voluntary sectors. He has developed many training films, delivered international Webinars and developed interactive training materials on a variety of coaching and mentoring topics. He is a member of the European Mentoring and Coaching Council (EMCC) and the International Mentoring Association (IMA). He regularly contributes to the professional journal Coaching at Work, and in 2014 the journal presented him with a lifetime achievement award for contributions to mentoring. Also in 2014, Bob received the EMCC’s Mentor of the Year award.

    David A. Lane has coached in a wide range of organisations, including major consultancies, multinationals, and public sector and government bodies, and has contributed to research and the professional development of coaching. He also pioneered the international development of work-based Masters degrees for experienced coaches. He was Chair of the British Psychological Society (BPS) Register of Psychologists Specialising in Psychotherapy and convened the European Federation of Psychologists Associations group on Psychotherapy. He has served on committees of the BPS, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), Worldwide Association of Business Coaches (WABC) and EMCC, and is a founder member of the Global Coaching Community. His contributions to counselling psychology led to his being presented with the Senior Award of the BPS for ‘Outstanding Scientific Contribution’. In 2009, he was honoured by the British Psychological Society for his Distinguished Contribution to Professional Psychology.


    Mentoring activity is embedded in organisational and social life, and coaching has now come of age. Over the last decade both have developed from esoteric activity on the fringes of mainstream learning and development, to central elements of workplace learning in a huge range of organisations. Coaching and mentoring are now the norm in a majority of corporate organisations, and are widespread in the public and voluntary sectors. From being almost exclusively a phenomenon of the English-speaking Anglo-Saxon world, the use of coaching and mentoring has spread around the globe into a vast number of countries, cultures and language communities. Today, a burgeoning literature, both ‘popular’ and scholarly, bears testimony not only to the diffusion of coaching and mentoring throughout organisational life, but also to the level of interest in these important developmental activities.

    The relationship between coaching and mentoring

    The relationship between coaching and mentoring, long contentious, remains problematic, because the two are at the same time distinct yet closely related. Some have gone so far as to suggest that the behaviours of coaching and mentoring are so close to being identical that it no longer makes sense to speak of them as separate phenomena, and are using the term coach-mentoring. While there are great similarities between coaching and mentoring in terms of skills, techniques and processes, there are also differences. The differences relate mainly to the context in which the activity is performed and the perceived or actual purpose of the activity. Mentoring is often, but not always, a voluntary role within an organisational, social or voluntary sector context. It performs a psychosocial function and provides ongoing support within an educative or learning and development framework. Coaching is more often a paid, professional activity with the coach acting as a facilitator of learning and development within an organisational context.

    While much professional literature is adamant that coaches do not perform a mentoring role, in practice they might, depending on the coachee’s needs, and the mentoring literature clearly suggests that coaching may be part of the mentor’s role.

    The mentoring literature strongly recommends that the mentoring function works best outside of the line relationship due to the inherent power dynamics, but practices vary in different organisations. The topic of ‘line manager’ as coach has been on the organisational agenda since the late 1970s and, like mentoring, power dynamics can create difficulties for the coachee and coach alike. In our view, this issue is not tackled sufficiently and we seek to address the issue of ‘power’ in this book.

    A further issue in which there is considerable debate around the similarities and differences is the question of ‘whose agenda is it?’ There is no easy answer to this question although both mentoring and coaching literature have contradictory views. These are often addressed by either the coaching literature making negative comments about mentoring or vice versa.

    What makes this book different?

    This book questions simplistic and prescriptive accounts of coaching and mentoring by holding up all featured models and frameworks to equal, dispassionate and research-informed scrutiny. It is important to strip away some of the unnecessary mystique and hype surrounding coaching and mentoring, but also to pinpoint the genuine contribution that these activities can make with the active informed commitment of all parties and stakeholders. For example, much is spoken and written of the importance of ‘a coaching culture’ or the ‘mentoring organisation’ and their contribution to organisational success. However, comparatively little attention is given to identifying genuinely critical factors in implementing and maintaining a culture of coaching and dealing with some of the inevitable tensions and conflicts that may ensue along the way.

    The apparently simple exhortation to ‘foster a coaching culture’ or ‘develop a mentoring organisation’ masks a deep and far-reaching challenge to entrenched models and behaviours of leadership and management in all our organisations. Logically it implies that a coaching-mentoring style (person-centred, listening, driven by the individual, and non-directive) becomes the default management style to be modelled by senior management and emulated throughout all levels of the organisation. Yet the dominant discourse of rational, pragmatic management remains resistant to change and the power dynamics that this implies persist. The implications of a break-down of this discourse are revolutionary, and yet much that is written on the topic seems to underplay the seismic nature of this revolution within organisations. The seismic nature is often portrayed as superficial at best, and window-dressing at worst within much of the literature.

    Most of the literature on coaching that has burgeoned over the last decade has a very promotional, almost proselytizing tone to it. This may have been appropriate during the period when coaching was finding a place in organizational life. Now, coaching activity, according to the evidence, has become accepted and established, and as such requires questioning and critique as well as explanation and promotion. Much of the current literature on coaching relentlessly ignores or lightly acknowledges the contribution of mentoring. Given the tendencies of both sets of literature to criticise each other, it is now time for longer-established research-based literature on mentoring to contribute to the coaching world, particularly in the area of culture development. This enables coaching to start from a more advanced place and together with the combined knowledge of research and practice in both fields, create new insights for practitioners.

    This book also has many practical features built into it and these are presented in the ‘coaching and mentoring way’. These include:

    • Case studies
    • Activities for individual and group learning extension
    • Summaries at the end of each chapter
    • Topics for discussion
    • ‘Questions that remain’ at the end of each chapter
    • Suggestions for further reading

    We are passionate about coaching and mentoring but that passion does not exclude critique. Critical thinking is the lifeblood of development, for without it we are condemned to go around the same loops over and over again. We hope you enjoy the challenges within these pages.


    David E. Gray

    I would like to thank the many members of the professional coaching associations for their collaboration over many years. A group of practitioners dedicated to their own professional development in order to help others.

    Bob Garvey

    Thanks to Margaret for her support in this project and in life! Thanks also to my colleagues, David Gray and David Lane, for the spirit of cooperation and collaboration we found in writing this book.

    David A. Lane

    I would like to thank all my students and clients who have over the years kept me focused on practicalities, and to colleagues who have constantly challenged my thinking to keep me unbalanced and therefore growing as an academic and practitioner.

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