A Critical Introduction to Coaching and Mentoring: Debates, Dialogues and Discourses
Publication Year: 2016
This is the definitive introduction to coaching and mentoring, written by an experienced and multidisciplinary team. Taking you all the way through from the emerging theory to informed practice, the book covers: • Skills, purposes and outcomes of coaching and mentoring processes • The many settings in which they take place – public, private and voluntary • Coaching and mentoring’s evidence base and how it is assessed • The professionalization of coaching and mentoring and a move towards integration. Supported by a wide range of case studies, activities, further questions and topics for discussion, this book is a comprehensive but accessible introduction. The authors take a critical approach and go beyond the basics, to support your development as a critically reflective practitioner. It is essential ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Introducing Coaching and Mentoring: Where do I start?
- Chapter 1: Why Coaching and Mentoring? Why Now?
- Chapter 2: Psychology as a Perspective to Inform our Work in Coaching and Mentoring
Part II: Coaching and Mentoring Skills and Process: What do I actually do and why?
- Chapter 3: Coaching and Mentoring Process
- Chapter 4: Competence and Performance for Coaching and Mentoring: A contested discourse
- Chapter 5: Coaching and Mentoring in the Learning Mix
- Chapter 6: Evaluating Coaching and Mentoring
Part III: Coaching and Mentoring in Organisations and Other Contexts
- Chapter 7: Coaching and Mentoring in Specific Contexts
- Chapter 8: Leadership, Management, Coaching and Mentoring
- Chapter 9: Towards a Coaching and Mentoring Culture
- Chapter 10: Introducing Coaching and Mentoring into an Organisation
Part IV: Professional and Personal Development for Coaches: How can I develop my practice?
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© David E. Gray, Bob Garvey and David A. Lane 2016
First published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015951597
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-7228-2 (pbk)
Editor: Susannah Trefgarne
Editorial assistant: Edward Coats
Production editor: Rachel Burrows
Marketing manager: Tamara Navaratnam
Cover design: Lisa Harper-Wells
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Ashford Colour Press Ltd
List of Figures and Tables[Page vii]Figures
- 1.1 Number of published articles which link learning and development and performance to coaching and mentoring 25
- 5.1 Kolb’s Learning Cycle 101
- 6.1 The well-being and engagement framework 124
- 7.1 Deficit vs development 161
- 7.2 Directive vs non-directive 162
- 10.1 Coaching faculty selection process 201
- 11.1 The seven foci of supervision 224
- 13.1 Fourfold typology of research 281
- 2.1 Coaching and mentoring theory source framework 41
- 5.1 Typography of learning 104
- 6.1 Cost–benefit analysis of a coaching and mentoring programme 116
- 6.2 Five levels of evaluation 117
- 6.3 Checklist for evaluating the performance of the coach or mentor 120
- 6.4 The advantages and disadvantages of using internal or external evaluators 121
- 6.5 Coaching and mentoring group with a control 126
- 6.6 Coaching and mentoring group with non-equivalent control 126
- 6.7 A comparison of GROW and AI, showing the mapping between AI and coaching models 129
- 7.1 Summary of emerging themes: Mentor interdisciplinary approaches 160
- 7.2 Summary of emerging themes: Coach interdisciplinary approaches 160[Page viii]
- 10.1 Pros and cons of using an external versus an internal coach 200
- 10.2 Potential stakeholders for the coaching needs analysis 202
- 10.3 A blended approach to supervision in an organisation 212
- 11.1 Types of supervision evaluation and their defining question or approach 233
- 11.2 Application of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation framework to coaching supervision 234
- 11.3 Advantages and disadvantages of using internal supervisors 236
- 11.4 Statement of ANSE General Principles 238
- 11.5 Summary of positions taken by some of the professional coaching associations to coach supervision 240
- 12.1 Statement of Shared Professional Values 260
- 13.1 Summary of focus areas of coaching research specified by the 100 ICRF proposals 270
- 13.2 Number of peer-reviewed journal articles on coaching research by ICRF focus area by year 272
- 13.3 The research landscape of coaching 273
- 13.4 Research design features in mentoring research 276
- 13.5 Data sources and focus of mentoring research inquiry 277
- 13.6 General research focus 278
- 13.7 Research Consultancy Framework (adapted for coaching and mentoring) 283
- 13.8 Research questions for the future 284
- 14.1 Alignment versus obliquity 300
About the Authors
Mentoring activity is embedded in organisational and social life, and coaching has now come of age. Over the last decade both have developed from esoteric activity on the fringes of mainstream learning and development, to central elements of workplace learning in a huge range of organisations. Coaching and mentoring are now the norm in a majority of corporate organisations, and are widespread in the public and voluntary sectors. From being almost exclusively a phenomenon of the English-speaking Anglo-Saxon world, the use of coaching and mentoring has spread around the globe into a vast number of countries, cultures and language communities. Today, a burgeoning literature, both ‘popular’ and scholarly, bears testimony not only to the diffusion of coaching and mentoring throughout organisational life, but also to the level of interest in these important developmental activities.The relationship between coaching and mentoring
The relationship between coaching and mentoring, long contentious, remains problematic, because the two are at the same time distinct yet closely related. Some have gone so far as to suggest that the behaviours of coaching and mentoring are so close to being identical that it no longer makes sense to speak of them as separate phenomena, and are using the term coach-mentoring. While there are great similarities between coaching and mentoring in terms of skills, techniques and processes, there are also differences. The differences relate mainly to the context in which the activity is performed and the perceived or actual purpose of the activity. Mentoring is often, but not always, a voluntary role within an organisational, social or voluntary sector context. It performs a psychosocial function and provides ongoing support within an educative or learning and development framework. Coaching is more often a paid, professional activity with the coach acting as a facilitator of learning and development within an organisational context.
While much professional literature is adamant that coaches do not perform a mentoring role, in practice they might, depending on the coachee’s needs, and the mentoring literature clearly suggests that coaching may be part of the mentor’s role.
[Page xii]The mentoring literature strongly recommends that the mentoring function works best outside of the line relationship due to the inherent power dynamics, but practices vary in different organisations. The topic of ‘line manager’ as coach has been on the organisational agenda since the late 1970s and, like mentoring, power dynamics can create difficulties for the coachee and coach alike. In our view, this issue is not tackled sufficiently and we seek to address the issue of ‘power’ in this book.
A further issue in which there is considerable debate around the similarities and differences is the question of ‘whose agenda is it?’ There is no easy answer to this question although both mentoring and coaching literature have contradictory views. These are often addressed by either the coaching literature making negative comments about mentoring or vice versa.What makes this book different?
This book questions simplistic and prescriptive accounts of coaching and mentoring by holding up all featured models and frameworks to equal, dispassionate and research-informed scrutiny. It is important to strip away some of the unnecessary mystique and hype surrounding coaching and mentoring, but also to pinpoint the genuine contribution that these activities can make with the active informed commitment of all parties and stakeholders. For example, much is spoken and written of the importance of ‘a coaching culture’ or the ‘mentoring organisation’ and their contribution to organisational success. However, comparatively little attention is given to identifying genuinely critical factors in implementing and maintaining a culture of coaching and dealing with some of the inevitable tensions and conflicts that may ensue along the way.
The apparently simple exhortation to ‘foster a coaching culture’ or ‘develop a mentoring organisation’ masks a deep and far-reaching challenge to entrenched models and behaviours of leadership and management in all our organisations. Logically it implies that a coaching-mentoring style (person-centred, listening, driven by the individual, and non-directive) becomes the default management style to be modelled by senior management and emulated throughout all levels of the organisation. Yet the dominant discourse of rational, pragmatic management remains resistant to change and the power dynamics that this implies persist. The implications of a break-down of this discourse are revolutionary, and yet much that is written on the topic seems to underplay the seismic nature of this revolution within organisations. The seismic nature is often portrayed as superficial at best, and window-dressing at worst within much of the literature.
Most of the literature on coaching that has burgeoned over the last decade has a very promotional, almost proselytizing tone to it. This may have been appropriate during the period when coaching was finding a place in organizational life. Now, coaching activity, [Page xiii]according to the evidence, has become accepted and established, and as such requires questioning and critique as well as explanation and promotion. Much of the current literature on coaching relentlessly ignores or lightly acknowledges the contribution of mentoring. Given the tendencies of both sets of literature to criticise each other, it is now time for longer-established research-based literature on mentoring to contribute to the coaching world, particularly in the area of culture development. This enables coaching to start from a more advanced place and together with the combined knowledge of research and practice in both fields, create new insights for practitioners.
This book also has many practical features built into it and these are presented in the ‘coaching and mentoring way’. These include:
- Case studies
- Activities for individual and group learning extension
- Summaries at the end of each chapter
- Topics for discussion
- ‘Questions that remain’ at the end of each chapter
- Suggestions for further reading
We are passionate about coaching and mentoring but that passion does not exclude critique. Critical thinking is the lifeblood of development, for without it we are condemned to go around the same loops over and over again. We hope you enjoy the challenges within these pages.
David E. Gray
I would like to thank the many members of the professional coaching associations for their collaboration over many years. A group of practitioners dedicated to their own professional development in order to help others.
Thanks to Margaret for her support in this project and in life! Thanks also to my colleagues, David Gray and David Lane, for the spirit of cooperation and collaboration we found in writing this book.
David A. Lane
I would like to thank all my students and clients who have over the years kept me focused on practicalities, and to colleagues who have constantly challenged my thinking to keep me unbalanced and therefore growing as an academic and practitioner.
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