• Summary
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Bridging an understanding of Statistics and SPSS.

“The text is written in a user-friendly language and illustrates concepts that would otherwise be confusing to beginning students and those with limited computer skills.”

-Justice Mbizo, University of West Florida

This unique text helps students develop a conceptual understanding of a variety of statistical tests by linking the ideas learned in a statistics class from a traditional statistics textbook with the computational steps and output from SPSS. Each chapter begins with a student-friendly explanation of the concept behind each statistical test and how the test relates to that concept. The authors then walk through the steps to compute the test in SPSS and the output, clearly linking how the SPSS procedure and output connect back to the conceptual underpinnings of ...

### Chapter 3: The Chi-Squared Test for Contingency Tables

##### The Chi-Squared Test for Contingency Tables
The chi-squared test for contingency tables
##### Introduction to the Chi-Squared Test

In the chapter on descriptive statistics, we drew a distinction between categorical and continuous variables. Most of the inferential statistics we discuss in this book assume that your outcome variable is continuous. However, sometimes we have outcomes that fall into categories (e.g., was someone on trial for a crime convicted or not? Or did a participant choose to open door number one, two, or three?). In these cases, and when our predictor variable is also categorical, the chi-squared test is appropriate.

The raw data typically ...