101 Solutions for School Counselors and Leaders in Challenging Times


Stuart F. Chen-Hayes, Melissa S. Ockerman & E.C.M. Mason

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    We humbly and joyfully acknowledge our pre-K–12 school counseling clients/students, school counseling graduate students, school counseling alumni, school counseling site supervisors, pre-K–12 school counseling and college readiness counseling colleagues, and pre-K–12 building and district leader colleagues for your wisdom, care, and concern in helping shape our ideas and solutions. We gratefully honor and appreciate our school counseling leadership, social justice advocacy, and counselor education mentors: Dr. Mary Smith Arnold, Maureen Casamassimo, Dr. Catharina Chang, Dr. Reese House, Dr. Anita Jackson, Dr. H. George McMahon, Dr. James Moore, Dr. Fran Mullis, Dr. Pamela O. Paisley, Dr. Susan Sears, Gail M. Smith, and Dr. Joanne White; our Transformed School Counseling (TSC) initiative colleagues including Dr. Trish Hatch at the Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership (CESCAL) and co-author of the ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs; Dr. Vivian Lee and Pat Martin of the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA), authors of the Eight College and Career Readiness Counseling Components and the strategic planning tool that are essential parts of the “Own the Turf Campaign”; Dr. Peggy Hines and Karen Crews of the National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC); and the 180-plus dedicated members of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) Transformed School Counseling/College Access Interest Network (TSCCAIN). Your collective wisdom and spirited pursuit of equity continue to inspire us. Thanks also to Tyler Wicks, DePaul University school counseling graduate assistant, for technological wizardry in formatting the CAFÉ (Change Agent for Equity) School Counselor Evaluation, and Debbie Ashley, CUNY Lehman College Adjunct Counselor Education faculty, for co-authoring the Ethical School Counselor Scenarios. We are indebted to our acquisitions editor, Jessica Allan, whose passion for good writing, independent publishing, and the best possible solutions for K–16 practitioners is exemplary. Finally, we thank the entire production team at SAGE/Corwin and our book reviewers who gave many useful ideas and suggestions to strengthen 101 Solutions.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin would like to thank the following individuals for taking the time to provide their editorial feedback and insight:

    Charisza Santos

    Lewis & Clark College

    Graduate School of Education and Counseling

    Portland, OR

    Erin J. Vandermore

    Elementary School Counselor

    Chicago Public Schools

    Chicago, IL

    About the Authors

    Stuart F. Chen-Hayes, PhD is program coordinator and associate professor of counselor education/school counseling at Lehman College of the City University of New York. He is also a part-time dissertation chair for Oregon State University's Counselor Education/School Counseling PhD program. Stuart has middle school, college student affairs, sexuality, family and couple, community mental health, and addictions counseling experience, and he is an equity-focused school counseling program consultant in K-12 school districts. Stuart also taught at National-Louis University in Chicago and at National Changhua University of Education in Taiwan. He is a co-founder and past president of Counselors for Social Justice, a past president of the North Atlantic Region Association for Counselor Educators and Supervisors (NARACES), a past president of the Illinois Counseling Association, and on the editorial boards of the Journal of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in Counseling, the Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, and the Journal of International Counselor Education. Stuart has written and/or co-authored 50 refereed publications and three streaming videos, including Equity-Focused School Counseling: Career and College Readiness for Every K-12 Student (2009), and Counseling LBGTIQ Youth in Schools and Families, Vols. 1, 2 (2000). He is a mentor for the Counselor Educator Transforming School Counseling Coalition and co-chairs a monthly Association for Counselor Education & Supervision (ACES) Transformed School Counseling/College Access Interest Network (TSCCAIN). Stuart has delivered 225-plus school counseling and social justice education presentations. He received his counseling and human development services PhD from Kent State University and counseling and counselor education MSEd from Indiana University.

    Melissa S. Ockerman, PhD is an associate professor in the counseling program at DePaul University. A proud Buckeye, she graduated with an MA in school counseling and PhD in counselor education from The Ohio State University. Dr. Ockerman has established a strong research agenda focusing on school counselor leadership, the efficacy of school counseling interventions, and systemic anti-bullying and school safety strategies. She appeared before the Congressional Black Caucus in Washington, DC, to discuss bipartisan anti-violence policies. She is a frequent presenter at local, state, and national conferences. In 2012, she was named the Illinois Counselor Educator of the Year. Dr. Ockerman currently holds executive positions in national and state professional organizations, including co-chair of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) Transformed School Counseling/College Access Interest Network, and vice president, counselor education, for the Illinois School Counseling Association (ISCA). Additionally, Dr. Ockerman is chair of the school counseling committee for the Illinois Safe Schools Alliance, a National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) Counselor Educator Coalition fellow, and an Advisory Council member for the Evidence-Based Practice in School Counseling conference. Her passion for educating the next generation of transformed school counselors is matched only by her strong desire to dismantle the pervasive achievement gap in schools through innovative and effective evidence-based school counseling interventions.

    E. C. M. Mason, PhD is a career-long advocate for the school counseling profession. Erin's accomplishments and contributions to the field derive from her 13 years of experience as a middle school counselor in her home state of Georgia. A proponent for modeling and supporting professional involvement and productivity, Erin fuels her passion for school counseling through state and national leadership opportunities. Erin served in multiple positions for the Georgia School Counselors Association (GSCA), including being the Government Relations co-chair for several consecutive years, and she was the 2012–2013 president of the Illinois School Counselor Association (ISCA). At the national level, Erin served as a lead RAMP reviewer for the American School Counselor Association (ASCA). She now serves as one of four mentors for the Transforming School Counseling (TSC) Counselor Educator Coalition and as an Advisory Council member for the Evidence-Based School Counseling Conference. As a presenter, scholar, trainer, and consultant, Erin's particular interests in school counseling lie in the areas of technology use, comprehensive program implementation and the professional identity development of school counselors. Erin is an assistant professor at DePaul University in Chicago and received her MEd, EdS, and PhD from Georgia State University.

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    504 Plan:

    Legally mandated accommodations in learning specified for students with particular disabilities

    AASA Code of Ethics:

    Ethical code for building and district leaders who are American Association of School Administrators members


    Focusing on what students in schools can do (versus what they can't do) using a strengths-based perspective


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons without disabilities to restrict individual, cultural, and systemic resources to persons with developmental, emotional, intellectual, learning, or physical disabilities

    ACA Code of Ethics:

    Ethical code for counselors of all specialty areas, including school counselors, from the American Counseling Association

    ACA Competencies for Counseling Transgender Clients:

    Best practices in counseling transgender persons from the American Counseling Association


    Moving students into more challenging material at the same grade level or advancing to a higher grade level

    Acceptable Use Policy:

    A written policy describing expectations regarding student and staff use of technology and mobile devices

    ACCESS and Accomplishments Plans:

    Planning tool to help school counselors and school counseling programs close opportunity and attainment gaps by ensuring K-12 students get annual planning focused on academic, career, college-access, and personal/social competencies using the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) 8 college and career readiness components and ASCA 9 student standards


    Changes to a classroom or policy that allow students with disabilities to fully participate; examples include extended time for assignments, extra visual and verbal cues/prompts, frequent breaks, graphic organizers, large-print text, testing format alterations, visual/written daily schedules, daily homework logs, assistive technology, speech-activated software, wheelchairs, and classroom changes such as preferred seating or altered seating arrangements


    Being held responsible for one's work and the impact it has on stakeholders


    A balancing of one's cultures/languages; the ability to appreciate the strengths and concerns of one's original and host cultures

    Achievement Data:

    Academic performance information about K-12 students derived from school report cards, school improvement plans, standardized testing, grades, career and college assessments, and state and national databases

    Achievement Gap:

    The difference in academic performance between and across diverse cultural groups by ethnicity/race, gender, ability/disability, social class, language, and other cultural variables

    Action Plan:

    A document that sets forth the objectives, resources needed, and persons responsible for enacting a desired outcome, such as the ASCA model tool to plan interventions to close gaps

    Action Research:

    Research that is specific to a local school and is aimed at generating solutions not necessarily generalizable to larger populations


    Publicly campaigning for a topic, cause, need, person, or group of persons

    Administrative Supervision:

    Supervision of school counselors or other staff by a principal, dean, or assistant principal; it may be evaluative in nature and/or revolve around logistical concerns

    Advanced Placement (AP):

    College-level course material taught in high school courses that offer the possibility of advanced standing in college courses and/or college credit if an exam is taken and passed with a certain score


    Creating positive change where change is needed; supporting, in word and deed, a topic, cause, need, person, or group of persons


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons 18–49 to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources based on nondominant age (affects children, adolescents, persons age 50-plus)

    ALGBTIC Competencies for Counseling with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Queer, Questioning, Intersex, and Ally (LGBQQIA) Individuals:

    Best practices in counseling persons with nondominant sexual orientations or those who are questioning their sexual orientation from the Association for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in Counseling

    Annual Agreement:

    The ASCA National Model tool that delineates the school counselor's time spent in various tasks and the major function of the school counseling department; the agreement is to be co-constructed and agreed upon by school counselors and administrators

    ASCA Ethical Code for School Counselors:

    Ethical code for all school counselors with specificity on K-12 schools for members of the American School Counselor Association


    A professional networking platform that is part of the American School Counselor Association

    ASCA School Counselor Competencies:

    The professional expectations of every school counselor in implementing a school counseling program that provides academic, career, and personal/social competencies to all students K-12

    ASCA Student Standards:

    Originally called national standards, these were developed to outline the academic, career, and personal/social competencies each student is expected to learn from a school counseling program

    ASCA Student Standards (Academic):

    The original three elements of what students should learn from a school counseling program in the academic domain are effective learning, academic preparation for postsecondary options, and relating academics to careers

    ASCA Student Standards (Careers):

    The original three ASCA student standards for career development are (1) Career Exploration; (2) Achieve Future Career Goals; and (3) Personal Qualities, Education, and Career Relationship

    ASCA Student Standards (Personal/Social):

    The three original ASCA personal/social student standards are (1) understanding and respecting self and others, (2) decision-making and achieving goals, and (3) safety and survival skills


    Determining needs for intervention and determining effectiveness of interventions over time


    Valuing one's new or host culture/language as better than one's prior culture or language and denigrating one's prior culture/language as negative or inferior; it can be chosen or coerced


    Interacting with technology sources at one's own convenience and not in real time

    Attainment Data:

    Information showing which students are graduating from undergraduate two-year and four-year colleges and universities with a diploma within four, five, or six years after enrollment, disaggregated by cultural group/identities

    Attainment Gap:

    The difference in rates of students graduating with a college diploma (two-year or four-year) across different cultural groups when data is disaggregated by ethnicity/race, social class, ability/disability, language background, and gender

    Authoritarian Leadership:

    Leadership that comes from one person who dictates what others are to do

    Autism Spectrum:

    The range of pervasive developmental disorders where the person experiences impairments in social interaction and communication and evidences repetitive and restricted behaviors


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons with culturally valued appearances to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources based on nondominant appearance

    Bilingual Education:

    Using two languages to teach and learn academic subjects in K-12 schools


    Journal entries or short personal or professional opinion pieces found on the Internet


    The process of appropriation of funds to staff and support the school according to federal mandates, state requirements, and local needs


    Intentionally and repeatedly inflicting unwanted emotional, verbal, physical, and/or social harm on another person that involves a disparity of power between the bully and the victim

    Career and Technical Education:

    The goal of CTE is to prepare students to gain entry-level employment in high-skill, high-wage jobs and/or to continue their education in their chosen career field.

    Career Development:

    Understanding interests, skills, and personality strengths in the process of making successful transitions between grade levels to postsecondary options and the world of work

    Carnegie Unit:

    A measure for the amount of time a student has studied a subject. Instruction that lasts 40–60 minutes 4–5 times a week, for 36–40 weeks, for a total of 120 hours annually, is one “unit” of high school credit.

    Caseload Assignments:

    The portion of a school's student body assigned to a school counselor; often determined by dividing up students' names alphabetically or by grade level or other unit

    Change Agent:

    An individual who works for justice for all groups and persons by identifying gaps and needs and then taking productive action

    Child Study Team:

    A team of school staff members including the school counselor who discuss and plan for students with academic and/or behavioral concerns


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons with dominant social class resources (wealthy and upper middle class) to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources to persons of nondominant social classes (poor, working class, lower middle class)

    Closing-the-Gap Action Plan:

    The ASCA Model planning tool to help close achievement (and opportunity and attainment) gaps

    Closing-the-Gap Results Report:

    The ASCA Model planning tool that shows process, perception, and outcome data in closing achievement (and opportunity and attainment) gaps

    Cloud Computing:

    The use of a web-based tool, site, or platform for storing documents, photos, or music so that the user has access to the most updated version. It reduces or eliminates use of computer hard drives for file storage and allows easier file sharing.


    The process by which school staff from various fields, disciplines, and roles come together to create solutions for issues that arise in their buildings

    Collaborative Conferencing Software:

    Specialized software applications that allow for multiple participants to interact with one another despite being in different geographic locations

    College Access:

    The activities engaged in by students, educators, and students' families that ensure students have the social capital and other resources to successfully pursue a college education

    College and Career Readiness:

    The activities engaged in by students, educators, and students' families that ensure students have the academic, social, and career- and college-planning skills to successfully pursue a college education and/or career of their choice; college ready means the ability to begin college with the necessary skills and knowledge to be successful without having to take remedial coursework; career ready means one is able to enter the workforce with the requisite skills to be successful and advance in one's chosen profession

    College Best Fit:

    The college that best suits each student on multiple variables—academic major(s), affordability, graduation rate, housing options, location, public/private, two-year or four-year, student activities/services, and so forth

    College Knowledge:

    The ability to navigate the college search and application process

    College Results Online:

    The Education Trust's annually updated website that monitors college graduation rates with disaggregated data for all U.S. four-year colleges and universities

    Common Career Technical Core Standards:

    The academic standards designed to ensure student success in postsecondary career and technical education (including college), which are focused on 16 career clusters and the academic pathways to reach them successfully

    Common Core State Standards:

    Learning standards common across 45 of 50 states aligned with assessments attempting to ensure greater depth in teaching and learning with the outcome that every K-12 student is career and college ready

    Common Data Set Initiative:

    Annual report by colleges and universities compiled by major educational publishers to ensure quality and accurate college information for informed decision making for students, families, and other stakeholders involved in high school to college transition


    A group comprising familial, social, religious, occupational, business, and legislative entities surrounding a school; a sense of belonging to something larger or greater than oneself


    A practice in which information shared with the school counselor is not revealed to any other person, that is, “What you say here stays here,” with exceptions including (1) imminent danger to self or others; (2) consultation/supervision with school counselor, psychologist, or social worker colleagues and school counseling program director; (3) court subpoenas/orders (but the school counselor/district can challenge them); (4) release of information consent forms, including those signed by parents/guardians for counseling a minor; and (5) confidentiality challenges with more than one client/student in group or family counseling

    Content Management Systems:

    Educationally driven websites designed to deliver content to participants who have access to the system, commonly used in colleges and universities for managing courses and communication between students and instructors

    Core Academic Skills:

    Skills such as critical thinking, writing, and reading comprehension that transcend subject matter and allow students to be successful in a variety of fields

    Crisis Intervention:

    A form of counseling that focuses on critical immediate situations

    Cultural Identity Development Models:

    Human developmental models based on cultural variables including ethnicity, gender, race, sexual orientation, social class, religion/spirituality, and others that emphasize integrating and valuing one's cultural identity(-ies) over time. Understanding and affirming identity development has been shown to mitigate against stress from oppression and promote feelings of pride in one's identity(-ies) and the history of challenging oppression.


    The use of technological devices and software (e.g., computers, tablets, cell phones, Internet chat rooms, website posts, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, other social media) to intentionally inflict unwanted emotional harm on another person repeatedly


    Repeated threats or intimidating messages or images sent via electronic devices to monitor another person with unwanted attention or electronic interactions

    Data Team:

    A team of school staff members including the school counselor who discuss national, state, district, and/or schoolwide data sets to determine areas of strength and improvement

    Data-Based Decision Making:

    Decision making that is accomplished by reviewing critical data elements associated with the problem at hand, such as graduation rates, test scores, grades, and disciplinary or attendance rates

    Data-Based Decision-Making Models:

    Conceptual frameworks that assist school counselors in using information to make successful interventions K-12 that help to close achievement, opportunity, and attainment gaps


    Decisions concerning future action that are based on survey reports, assessments, statistics, or other forms of data

    Democratic Leadership:

    Leadership that involves seeking the perspectives and feedback of those who are led

    Developmental Disabilities:

    Chronic impairments appearing prior to adulthood that can be physical, cognitive, and/or learning that limit functioning in at least three areas of living: self-care, language (receptive/expressive), learning, mobility, self-direction, independent living, and ability to be economically independent


    Using varied instructional methods and assessments to enhance learning for every student

    Digital Citizenship:

    Behaving online in an ethical and responsible way

    Digital School Counseling Brochure:

    A brochure from the school counseling program that exists in digital form instead of or in addition to print format

    Digital School Counseling Bulletin Board:

    A picture of the school counseling program bulletin board posted on the school counseling program web pages

    Disaggregated Data:

    Data that is pulled apart to look at differences by group, including grade level, gender, age, ability/disability, ethnicity/race, language, and social class (free and reduced lunch), and is used to identify inequitable policies and practices that can close gaps

    Disaggregated Opportunity and Attainment Data:

    K-12 college/career readiness and college graduation information categorized by cultural group that can indicate inequitable patterns across multiple data points that make the difference in college and career/technical program admission and graduation

    Distributed/Shared Leadership:

    Leadership that is shared within a group that makes decisions together with input from stakeholders

    Do No Harm:

    Also known as nonmaleficence, this covenant ensures that school counseling program policies and practices governing delivery of academic, career and college readiness, and personal/social competencies treat all K-12 students equitably (harm results from not having equitable access to these competencies).


    Classification system used by mental health professionals for diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional/behavioral disorders; contains research- and evidence-based decision-making tools for diagnosis and dimensional assessments

    Dual Language Immersion or Two-Way Education:

    Classroom instruction in both the native and the target language, usually at the elementary level, that takes place primarily in the target language (i.e., 90–10 model) until fluency is gained and then shifts to equal proportions of both languages. Only one language is used in the classroom at a time, which moves students toward greater proficiency faster, and students learn about all subjects in both languages. This approach increases students' skills in both languages and fosters high levels of cognitive complexity.

    Dual Relationships:

    Acting in another role or roles in addition to that of school counselor toward students or their families (e.g., also being a teacher or being a dean or dating a student's parent or guardian)—dual roles are to be avoided/minimized at all times

    Duty to Warn:

    School counselors, like other mental health professionals, have a legal and ethical duty to warn those in imminent danger when a student/client threatens harm to self or others.

    Educational Equity:

    Ensuring all children and adolescents have the resources, opportunities, and fair treatment to be successful in K-12 settings


    The effectiveness of school operations and organization to meet the goals of the school and to facilitate student success


    The identified classification of the particular special needs of a student that qualifies the student for services

    Emotional Abuse:

    Abuse that includes but is not limited to constant criticism, intimidation, manipulation, name-calling, threats, and invalidation

    Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities:

    Conditions over time that harm a child or adolescent's academic abilities, including at least one of the following: an inability to learn not explained by other factors; poor peer and teacher interpersonal relationships; inappropriate behaviors or feelings; pervasive unhappiness or depressed mood; and physical symptoms or fears related to school or personal factors


    Newsletters that are delivered in graphic form via e-mail or an Internet link


    For gifted/talented students, staying at grade level but learning more in depth at particular periods during the day and outside of school compared to peers

    Epstein's School-Family–Community-Partnership Model:

    There are six different types of involvement that promote collaborative relationships: (1) parenting; (2) communicating; (3) volunteering; (4) learning at home; (5) decision-making; and (6) collaboration with the community


    Fairness, justice, and ensuring that all students have the social capital and academic, career and college readiness, and personal/social competencies to reach their career/college dreams, facilitated by a school counseling program; some students need greater resources than others

    Equity Assistance Centers:

    Ten regional offices around the United States that deliver resource assistance for K-12 school and district staff to promote equity and equal opportunities based on race, gender, and national origin; funded by the U.S. Department of Education and Title IV of the 1964 Civil Rights Act

    Equity Audit:

    An assessment of all of a school's policies and practices and their effect on diverse cultural groups/identities within the school; this includes the master schedule, who takes rigorous courses, who receives career and college readiness counseling and planning, who graduates on time, who is over-credited and under-credited, and how school counselors and school counseling program resources are deployed for all students

    Ethical Decision-Making Model for School Counselors:

    Developed by Carolyn Stone and included in the 2010 ASCA Ethical Code for School Counselors revision “Solutions to Ethical Problems in Schools” or STEPS:

    • Define the problem emotionally and intellectually
    • Apply the ASCA and ACA ethical codes and the law
    • Consider the students' chronological and developmental levels
    • Consider the setting, parental rights, and minors' rights
    • Apply the moral principles
    • Determine your potential courses of action and their consequences
    • Evaluate the selected action
    • Consult
    • Implement the course of action


    A process used by an individual or group to determine progress or quality; evaluation is a key element in any improvement process

    Evidence-Based Practices:

    Interventions or strategies that are grounded in research and have publicly available data

    External Public Relations:

    Explaining the school counseling program and the larger school context to stakeholders outside the building: parents/guardians, community organizations, businesses, places of worship, and voters


    Free software, developed by Dr. Tim Poynton for school counselors and leaders to use to collect, study, and disseminate data for school counselors, school counseling programs, and educators, that can easily be used to help close achievement gaps

    Family Educational Rights Privacy Act (FERPA):

    Federal law proscribing who may have access to a student's educational records and when; it states that schools may not divulge educational records without consent and a written release from a parent/guardian or eligible student; students of a certain age may legally access their records and ask to amend incorrect records


    The roles and relationships of a domestic unit of people connected by birth, marriage or other legal commitments, or in spirit

    Family Life Cycle:

    The developmental stages over time that include normative tasks whose successful resolution indicates greater likelihood of success in future stages; stages are not necessarily linear and don't necessarily apply to all persons or families

    Family Process:

    The type and quality of roles and relationships between family members that affect family functioning

    Family Resilience:

    Strengths-based perspective on working to build family patterns, interactions, and relationships for optimal functioning

    Family System:

    A unit with complex interactions or processes and subsystems (parental, sibling, child) that mediate interactions between members of the system


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons from traditional family types to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources based on nondominant family type (single, single-parent, same-gender, multiracial, homeless, adoptive, foster, divorced)


    Sending spiteful or vulgar messages about someone to a person or group online or via text messaging

    Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA):

    An application required by the federal government that determines the amount of federal financial assistance for which a student qualifies; used by many universities/colleges to determine scholarship and grant contributions.


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by traditionally gendered persons to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources to gender-variant and transgender persons


    K-12 students with outstanding aptitude/capabilities in intellectual, artistic, creative, and leadership domains or specific academic disciplines needing specialized activities/services to develop full capabilities


    Specified target levels of performance for the student to reach as identified by the IEP team

    Heritage Language:

    Language spoken at home that is the original language of some or all family members but not the main language of instruction in a K-12 school


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by heterosexuals to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources to lesbian, bisexual, and gay persons

    Horizontal and Vertical Stressors:

    Predictable transitions over the life cycle (births, marriages, divorces, deaths) and unexpected events (accidents, disabilities, illnesses, sudden death); vertical stressors include long-standing family patterns such as legacies, myths, secrets, and patterns that influence family processes


    International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health-Related Problems, 10th edition, an international medical disease classification system


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons of legal citizenship status to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources to persons of nondominant citizenship status


    Illegal sexual relations between people who are closely related


    Placing students with disabilities in general education classrooms with appropriate support services and staffing

    Individual Student Planning:

    Ongoing systemic activities assisting the individual student in establishing personal goals and developing future plans, such as individual learning, graduation, and ACCESS/Accomplishments plans

    Individualized Educational Plan (IEP):

    Written statement, updated regularly, outlining specific academic/social services, service providers, goals, and objectives for a child or adolescent with one or more disabilities

    Informed Consent:

    When a minor student's parent/guardian or student of the legal age of consent gives written permission to receive individual or group counseling from the school counselor with an understanding of the techniques to be used, the duration of counseling, the potential benefits and concerns, and the student's/family's right to stop counseling at any time

    Integrative Developmental Model:

    A model of counselor supervision that centers on the counselor's professional development in the areas of awareness of self and others, motivation, and autonomy

    Intellectual Disabilities:

    Below-average cognitive functioning in two or more behaviors first appearing in childhood or adolescence

    Internal Public Relations:

    Explaining the school counseling program to all internal stakeholders including students, educators, staff, and building leaders

    International Baccalaureate:

    Pre-K–12 course curriculum framework offered for elementary, middle, intensive IB, and high school students focused on depth and breadth of learning using units of inquiry, theme-based learning permeating all course subjects throughout the year, and inquiry-based learning. The last two years of the high school program are known as the IB Diploma and passing intensive IB, college-level content courses, based on essay exams, allows some students to enter college with course credit and/or advanced standing. The IB curriculum framework is taught worldwide and recognized internationally for developing critical thinking and international-mindedness. All students are expected to study at least one world language in addition to the language of instruction in the IB model with a focus on international learning.

    Intimate Partner Violence:

    Emotional, physical, and/or sexual violence and/or threats thereof inflicted on an intimate partner; formerly known as domestic violence

    Laissez-Faire Leadership:

    A leadership style in which leaders are vague and seemingly aimless, hands-off, and/or uninvolved

    Language Immersion:

    Instruction given exclusively in a target language for a sustained period to promote fluency


    Taking initiative to create positive change

    Leadership Practices:

    Practices, either innate or learned, that create positive change

    Leadership Team:

    A team of school staff members including the school counselor that discusses relevant issues of the school

    Learning Disabilities:

    Learning and cognition challenges in particular academic subjects, including reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), and mathematics (dyscalculia), where learners need varied approaches to learn material successfully

    Learning Styles:

    Learning varies by individuals, and all persons have preferred ways of learning, including aural, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic; lesson planning and delivery is enhanced when school counselors provide content and experiences suited to diverse learning styles

    Least Restrictive Environment:

    Ensuring maximum interaction with the general school environment for students with disabilities


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons of a dominant language denying individual, cultural, and systemic resources to persons of a nondominant language background


    Sending or posting potentially harmful information via snail mail, chatrooms, websites, or Facebook posts under an assumed identity

    Massive Open Online Courseware (MOOC):

    An Internet-based platform for providing education and/or training to large and broad audiences

    Multicultural Competencies:

    Specific cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills that professional counselors use to effectively counsel culturally diverse clients/students

    Multicultural Education:

    A discipline in education focused on creating educational equity for all students focused on both content about diverse groups and how educational processes are conducted regarding multiple cultural identities for students K–12

    NACAC Statement of Professional Good Practice (SPGP):

    Ethical code of conduct updated annually by the National Association for College Admission Counseling for admission counselors in K–12 and college settings

    NAESP Code of Ethics:

    Code of ethics for elementary and middle school building leaders who are members of the National Association of Elementary School Principals

    NASSP Code of Ethics:

    Code of ethics for middle and high school building leaders who are members of the National Association of Secondary School Principals

    NEA Code of Ethics:

    Code of ethics for teachers who are members of the National Education Association

    Needs Assessment:

    Activities designed to acquire information about stakeholder needs


    Refusal or delay in timely and appropriate health care, permitted chronic truancy, or inattention to special education needs without reasonable cause; inadequate nurturance or affection; encouraging or permitting drug or alcohol use by children or adolescents; or refusal to allow needed medical treatment for a child or adolescent's emotional or psychological care


    Appropriate behavior using digital network communications

    NOSCA Eight Components of College and Career Readiness Counseling:

    The essential tools that all elementary, middle, and high school counselors use to ensure college and career readiness skills by high school graduation

    Online Harassment:

    Persistent, offensive messaging from one or more persons who send unwanted messages or images that may include threats of emotional or physical harm to the recipient or others close to the recipient

    Online Instruction:

    A means of using the Internet as a source of instruction in concert with or in lieu of face-to-face instruction


    The day-to-day management of a school inclusive of facility use, master schedules, traffic flow patterns, budgetary practices, staffing, policies, and procedures

    Opportunity Data:

    Data points that indicate which students K–12 are given the social capital and college and career readiness competencies needed to successfully enter and complete four-year and two-year college, university, and career/technical programs

    Opportunity Gap:

    The difference between disaggregated student cultural group/identities in access to annual career and college readiness planning and counseling interventions, challenging coursework (including Advanced Placement courses, International Baccalaureate curriculum framework courses, and intensive honors courses), the strongest teachers (teaching in-subject with longevity), and other experience and social capital that boosts success in college and career with measurable outcomes


    Prejudice multiplied by power that dominant cultural groups use to restrict access to individual, cultural, and systemic resources by nondominant cultural group members; examples include ableism, ageism, beautyism, classism, familyism, genderism, heterosexism, immigrationism, linguicism, racism, religionism, and sexism


    The structure of groupings or assigning tasks and responsibilities to certain persons within schools such as teams, grade levels, departments, and committees

    Outcome Research:

    Research that demonstrates the effectiveness of an intervention or program and suggests generalizability to larger populations

    Outing or Trickery:

    Tricking an individual into providing confidential information with the intention of making it public to others via chatrooms, e-mail, Facebook, snail mail, Twitter, texting, or websites


    Collaborative work on the part of people or institutions to meet a common goal

    Physical Abuse:

    Acts including hitting with hand, stick, strap, or other object; punching; kicking; shaking; throwing; burning; stabbing; or choking

    Physical Disabilities:

    Bodily impairments that can occur prior to, during, or after birth that affect physical functioning and/or limit daily functioning; examples include impaired hearing or vision, epilepsy, and respiratory disorders


    Audio recordings of lectures or presentations that can be listened to online or through accessible applications for mobile devices

    Positive Behavior Support (PBS):

    A form of Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) using functional behavioral assessments (FBA) to get a baseline of data about a student's behavior, contexts, and consequences and then create goals, interventions, and monitoring of changes pre- and post-intervention


    The right to keep one's personal information and records from being disclosed to others

    Privileged Communication:

    A right legally held by the student/client to ensure privacy when discussing personal matters with certain professionals. It applies to relationships with medical doctors, clergy, and attorneys but not at the federal level to relationships with most mental health professionals, including school counselors, unless they practice in a state that legally grants them privileged communication.

    Process, Perception, and Outcome Data for Opportunity and Attainment Gaps:

    The impact of a school counseling program intervention on moving an opportunity or attainment data point—such as increased attendance, fewer tardies, more students in challenging courses, more students graduating from two-year and four-year colleges and career/technical programs, higher grades, fewer behavioral incidents, every student completing a college/career/academic plan, all students taking PSAT and PLAN, and so forth

    Professional Learning Communities:

    Formalized groups of school staff members, often across disciplines, engaged in ongoing, intentional, organized learning together for the benefit of understanding the needs of students and the school community

    Program Assessment:

    The process of measuring a school counseling program's effectiveness, including process, perception, and outcome results; it typically includes regular pre- and post-tests, needs assessments, surveys, and questionnaires for various stakeholders including students, staff, families, and/or community members


    A false identity created to hide the identity of a bully while making fun of, harassing, threatening, or intimidating others or instigating fights online

    Public Relations:

    Marketing school counseling programs and positions by investing time and energy in building relationships with stakeholders and sharing news, updates, and outcomes in both digital and traditional formats


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons of a dominant racial group (in the United States, Whites) to deny persons of color and mixed-race persons individual, cultural, and systemic resources


    Recognized ASCA Model Program is an award given to school counseling programs for their data-driven outcomes in fully implementing a school counseling program including closing achievement and/or opportunity gaps in their schools.


    The act of forced sexual activity with an unwilling or nonconsenting person

    Release of Information:

    A legal document giving permission, when signed and dated by a parent/guardian of a minor or by a student of legal age of consent, to share information about the student from one professional to another


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons of a dominant religion to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources based on nondominant religion, spirituality, or meaning-making system

    Response to Intervention:

    Schools identify students facing poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions, and adjust the interventions depending on a student's responsiveness.

    Results Report:

    An ASCA Model tool that helps school counselors monitor the effectiveness of their interventions by documenting outcomes


    Temporary instructional supports that assist learners in creating new knowledge that gives added structure to ensure success

    School Climate:

    The overall feelings, attitudes, and expectations prevalent in a school

    School Counseling Core Curriculum:

    The developmental classroom lessons school counselors plan, create, implement, and evaluate to deliver academic, career/college access, and personal/social competencies to all students K–12 in collaboration with teachers and other school leaders

    School Counseling Program Advisory Council:

    A leadership group comprising stakeholders to include a teacher, school building leader, student, parent/guardian, and community member that advises school counselors on the goals, data, implementation, and evaluation of the school counseling program

    School Counseling Program Website:

    Website designed to educate readers about the school counseling program with information such as services provided, upcoming events, and contact information for school counselors

    School Counselor Performance Evaluation:

    Evaluating school counselors on their school counseling practices in personal/social, college/career, and academic domains and the impact that work has on their students and school community

    School Counselor Performance Standards:

    District or state standards used to evaluate school counselor effectiveness

    School Counselor Performance Tool:

    District or state template, rubric, or form used to evaluate school counselor effectiveness

    School Culture:

    The institutionalized atmosphere or “feel” of a school on a day-to-day basis

    School Improvement Plan:

    School annual goals for improvement that should address achievement, opportunity, and attainment gap performance

    School Profile:

    An overview of the school, including demographics, size, population, location, academic achievement strengths and gaps, and special programs

    Servant Leadership:

    Leadership that has service as a core value and is carried out as a means to serve the greater good


    Prejudice multiplied by power used by persons of a dominant gender (men and boys) to deny individual, cultural, and systemic resources to women and girls


    Sending sexual images of oneself or of one's target through electronic means to others

    Sexual Abuse:

    Oral, vaginal, or anal intrusion or penetration using the genitals or touching genitals with body parts or other objects, enacted on a child or adolescent; may include adult nudity, genital exposure, or inappropriate observation of a child or adolescent while nude (e.g., undressing, bathing)

    Sexual Harassment:

    Unwelcome and unsolicited advances, teasing, and/or comments of a sexual nature

    Social Exclusion:

    Intentionally prohibiting or limiting an individual's participation in an online group, social network, e-mail list, or chat room

    Social Justice:

    Equity in access to resources including human and civil rights movements that challenge oppression

    Social Media Sites:

    Web-based tools or locations that allow for social and/or professional interaction

    Standards Blending:

    Demonstrating the school counseling program's effectiveness in academic success and closing achievement gaps by combining school counseling student standards delivered in school counseling core curriculum lessons with academic standards such as the Common Core State Standards for career and college readiness

    Strategic Planning:

    Planning that is conducted in response to identified needs in a school and as a means to address those needs


    A software program designed to monitor college attainment rates for high school cohorts


    Interacting with technology sources in real time or “live”


    A collection of parts joined together by multiple relationships that are interrelated and interdependent

    Systemic Change:

    Change that occurs within and between the multiple spheres of influence that shape educational processes and policies, including (but not limited to) students, parents/guardians, teachers, administrators, and community members


    Organizational units used to divide a school's student body based on geographical layout, efficiency, or convenience


    Strong persistence

    Transformational Leadership:

    A type of leadership that empowers the leadership of others

    Transition Planning:

    Students with IEPs by age 14 are required to have a plan in place for transition from high school to the world of work and/or college, and it is mandated in IEPs for students age 16 and older

    Transitional Bilingual Education:

    Courses taught in school for up to three years in the native language with the goal of students then shifting exclusively to the target language; often used to promote the target language as the primary goal for future instruction

    Twice Exceptional Students:

    Students identified as gifted/talented and having learning and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities

    Universal Design for Learning:

    Creating and implementing curriculum that is effective with the widest range of learners and learning styles

    Use of Time Analysis Assessment:

    An ASCA National Model form that allows school counselors to enter their daily activities and tasks to analyze where time is spent and where it is not

    Vertical Teaming:

    Staffing by educators within specific disciplines and districts or states to develop curricula, programs, and/or procedures sharing continuity and intentionality from one student level (elementary, middle school, high school) to another to ensure student academic success

    Virtual Worlds/Simulation:

    Virtual spaces, games, or scenarios in which persons can engage online or through specialized software


    Video-based journal entries or short personal or professional opinion pieces that can be found on the Internet


    Video-based recordings of lectures or presentations that can be viewed online or through accessible applications for mobile devices


    Interactive or noninteractive lectures and presentations that are typically “live” or synchronous and presented through the Internet


    Collaboratively constructed websites that allow multiple users to add and edit information

    World View:

    A cultural group's set of values and beliefs passed on over time that can include cosmology and epistemology

    Young Men of Color Initiative:

    Young men of color often face some of the most dire outcomes in society and K–12 schools; this initiative is designed by the College Board Advocacy and Policy Office to help school counselors, leaders, and all educators turn around that data with effective policies and practices that empower all young men of color to successfully reach their career and college dreams.

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