Brain-friendly strategies to help all students become lifelong readers Learning to read is more than just an educational issue; it’s a social justice issue. Did you know that struggling readers are twice as likely as their peers to drop out of high school? Through time-tested, research-based neurocognitive teaching strategies, 10 Essential Instructional Elements for Students with Reading Difficulties will enable you to hone readers’ skills and help students from all grade levels develop their ability to create meaning from print. Drawing from five key areas of neurocognitive research, Andrew Johnson provides a ten-point teaching strategy that encompasses vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, writing and more. A key resource for creating intervention plans for struggling readers, features include:  • Information on the often-overlooked importance of emotions in the process of overcoming reading struggles  • Strategies to promote voluntary reading, even for the most reluctant students  • Useful resources such as graphic organizers, additional reading and writing activities, and QR codes that link to videos  • Use these strategies today and you can count on more students leaving your classrooms as fluent, lifelong readers. “Dr. Johnson tells the story of reading in a logical and clear manner with a book that is excellently researched, immaculately referenced, and full of practical tips for the practitioner.” Terry Bernstein, Former Senior Literacy Difficulties Specialist London Boroughs of Camden and Westminster, UK “This is the text I wish I had when I began to teach. Dr. Johnson clearly illustrates the process our brain uses to create meaning from text.” Marty Duncan, Ed.D., Author and Former Educator

Comprehension of Narrative Text

Comprehension of Narrative Text

Nobody in real life cares if students can identify story grammar elements. It’s not at all important. What is important is that the related cognitive process becomes automatic during the act of reading narrative text.

This chapter focuses on strategies to enhance the comprehension of narrative text. The next chapter focuses on comprehending expository text.

Comprehension Basics

Comprehending is the act of understanding what you read. In other words, comprehension involves creating meaning. Here are six basic ideas:

1. Comprehension is an active process (Almasi, Palmer, Madden, & Hart, 2011; Sousa, 2014). Good readers have to do something to construct meaning as they read. At varying degrees they use background knowledge along with a variety of thinking processes.

2. Background knowledge ...

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