Brain-friendly strategies to help all students become lifelong readers Learning to read is more than just an educational issue; it’s a social justice issue. Did you know that struggling readers are twice as likely as their peers to drop out of high school? Through time-tested, research-based neurocognitive teaching strategies, 10 Essential Instructional Elements for Students with Reading Difficulties will enable you to hone readers’ skills and help students from all grade levels develop their ability to create meaning from print. Drawing from five key areas of neurocognitive research, Andrew Johnson provides a ten-point teaching strategy that encompasses vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, writing and more. A key resource for creating intervention plans for struggling readers, features include:  • Information on the often-overlooked importance of emotions in the process of overcoming reading struggles  • Strategies to promote voluntary reading, even for the most reluctant students  • Useful resources such as graphic organizers, additional reading and writing activities, and QR codes that link to videos  • Use these strategies today and you can count on more students leaving your classrooms as fluent, lifelong readers. “Dr. Johnson tells the story of reading in a logical and clear manner with a book that is excellently researched, immaculately referenced, and full of practical tips for the practitioner.” Terry Bernstein, Former Senior Literacy Difficulties Specialist London Boroughs of Camden and Westminster, UK “This is the text I wish I had when I began to teach. Dr. Johnson clearly illustrates the process our brain uses to create meaning from text.” Marty Duncan, Ed.D., Author and Former Educator

Fluency

Fluency

Repeated practice playing the piano or singing musical text enables musicians to become fluent reading an individual piece of music and also improves their ability to sight read other music. They begin to see musical passages and hear chord progressions instead of individual notes. So it is with alphabetic text.

As stated in earlier chapters, readers struggle because of deficits in one or more of the following three areas: word identification, comprehension, and fluency. This chapter describes strategies that can be used to enhance reading fluency.

Reading Fluency

Reading fluency is the ability to recognize words automatically during reading. This automatic response, called automaticity, improves comprehension by allowing the reader to spend more thinking space focusing on the meaning of the text and less thinking space ...

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