Native American Protest Movements in the 20Th Century

Since the inception of native-white contact, Indian protest has largely been recorded as a violent struggle between men of both races. Women, when they appear, are relegated to the role of victim or helpmate. However, native women have a long history of serving their people as warriors (Buffalo Calf Road), political leaders (Molly Brant), and religious leaders (Mary Slocum). Modern native women have continued to follow in the footsteps of these remarkable women.

The assimilation and allotment policies of the late 19th century served as a catalyst for many of the panIndian movements that characterized the 20th century. Prior to the 20th century, Indian protest movements were largely led by reform-minded whites who made little attempt to discover what native people wanted or needed. The most ...

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