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Botox

Botox is a brand name for botulinum toxin type A (botulinum), a neurotoxic protein. The substance is commonly used for the reduction of facial wrinkles. In the United States, in 2008, botulinum was administered more than 5 million times-a quadrupling since 2000. Botulinum injections made up about half of the 10.4 million “minimally invasive” cosmetic surgery procedures reported by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons in 2008. Worldwide, across various demographics and ethnicities, it is the most common cosmetic surgery treatment; women make up approximately 91 percent of its users. This entry traces the history of botulinum, its administration, side effects, and cultural implications.

Botulinum toxin is a naturally occurring poison found in decomposing meat. While the contraction of botulism from contaminated food can be fatal, ...

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