Xtreme sports, which emerged during the 1960s and 1970s when women athletes were struggling for positioning in mainstream traditional sports, are also often referred to as “alternative,” “extreme,” “x,” “gravity,” “lifestyle,” and “adventure” sports. The term extreme encompasses various activities, many of which are often dangerous, involve significant risk, and occur in the wilderness or outdoors. An effective system of classification denotes where the events take place: snow, ice, rock, raging water, air, and skate parks.

Female athletes participated frequently in early versions of extreme sports. The sports celebrate freedom and liberty, as female participants epitomized strength, individuality, and courage. Extreme sports can provide women with an alternative identity compared with traditional sports, and therefore women can experience empowerment via their participation. In 2003, there ...

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