Sterilization refers to the permanent interference of the ability of an individual to reproduce, most often through surgical methods. Sterilization is considered involuntary when an individual is either unable to provide consent, has been denied the opportunity to provide consent, or has been deceived or coerced into providing consent. Many countries throughout the world have a history of forced or involuntary sterilization programs. Currently, mentally retarded individuals continue to be legally sterilized without consent.

Modern methods for female sterilization include tubal ligation, hysteroscopic sterilization and hysterectomy. Both tubal ligation and hysteroscopic sterilization methods entail closing off the fallopian tubes to prevent eggs from traveling to the uterus. Though considered permanent sterilization, in some cases, the procedures can be reversed. Hysterectomy refers to the surgical removal of ...

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