Despite the recent advancement of some female sports officials to the ranks of the professional leagues and amateur world championships, female sports officials still lag behind their male counterparts in terms of numbers and opportunities for advancement. Advocates of gender equity in sports anticipated that an increase in the number of school-sponsored teams and increased participation opportunities for women at all levels of sport would result in increased job opportunities for female coaches, athletic administrators, and sport officials. While job opportunities did increase at all levels of sports with the passage of Title IX legislation in 1972, most of those positions were filled by males.

Prior to 1972, girls’ and women's sports were primarily coached, administered, and officiated by women. As early as the ...

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