The Republic of South Africa is a country located on the southern extremity of the continent of Africa. The country is bordered by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique, and has Lesotho, a small, mountainous country, landlocked within its borders. South Africa has a lengthy coastline fringed by both the warm Indian Ocean and the cold South Atlantic Ocean, and although the climate is generally temperate, temperature varies throughout the country.

South Africa is home to more than 50 million people and is recognized for its diversity of language, culture, and religion (earning it the nickname of “The Rainbow Nation”) but also for its tumultuous political past. Following nearly 300 years of colonial rule, the policy of apartheid, which determined rights and privileges to all citizens based ...

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