Historically, women have had less involvement in mathematical activity than men. Although women's participation and achievement have increased rapidly across the world since the beginnings of the second wave of feminism, differences (particularly in participation) exist in the majority of countries. Many explanations have been offered for these differences connecting to a range of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. As a result, a range of initiatives has been developed to promote interest in mathematics among women. While some approaches see mathematics as a fixed body of knowledge and seek to change women so that more of them want to pursue mathematics, others have used the focus on gender to find different ways of doing mathematics.

The Western narrative of the history of mathematics is ...

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