Machismo and marianismo are ideological constructions, originating in 19th-century Spanish and Latin America, which serve as a model for gender relations. Machismo refers to an idealized understanding of male behavior and power while marianismo is the term for the corresponding female role.

The terms are predicated on a heightened and exaggerated masculinity and femininity. While often naturalized as the innate roles of men and women, machismo and marianismo are culturally and historically specific. These constructions arose at the same time as the Victorian ideal of separate spheres, with men in the public world of finance and politics and women in the private sphere of the home. Machismo and marianismo are a Latin American variant that first appeared in the 1800s and are still prevalent today in ...

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