Fundamentalism originated in the 1920s, in the urban North in the United States, in reaction to 19th century secularism and was largely unsuccessful. In the 1930s, Fundamentalism became a separatist movement. During the 1970s and 1980s, Fundamentalism resurfaced through the political efforts of the “Moral Majority.” After successfully overtaking the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), Fundamentalists have revised denominational history to support their dogma and limited women from ministerial leadership.

In the late 19th century, several intellectual ideas challenged American evangelical Protestant Christian hegemony. The Enlightenment advocated individualism, reason, freedom, and progress. Biblical criticism questioned biblical inspiration and historicity. Evolutionary theory doubted Intelligent Design. Liberal theology attempted to reconcile the Enlightenment, biblical criticism, and evolution with Christianity. Rising secularism incited Protestant opposition to liberalism.

California entrepreneurs Lyman and ...

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