Film production includes all aspects of the behind-the-scenes workings of motion pictures, videos, and television. The production (filming) and postproduction (editing) crew, hired by a producer or production company, is distinguished from the talent, meaning the cast of actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters who appear onscreen. The crew is divided into different departments, including camera department, sound department, art department (set and production design), hair and makeup, wardrobe (costumes), grip, electrical, and editorial.

Since the advent of filmmaking, women have worked in all of the various crew positions including “above the line” jobs such as screenwriter, producer, executive producer, director and actor, and the numerous “below the line” positions such as the director of photography (DP or cinematographer), ...

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