Contraception is the use of a variety of technologies and practices to prevent the fertilization of female egg by male sperm cells. Typical forms of contraception include barrier methods (such as the male or female condom, diaphragm, contraceptive sponge, or cervical cap), hormonal methods (birth control pills containing progesterone, estrogen, or both; patches or insertable objects that release hormones; intramuscular injectables; implants inserted beneath the skin); and chemical methods (spermicides). Finally, fertility awareness methods such as Natural Family Planning, calendar-based and body-awareness methods (including charting ovulation, basal body temperature, and other signs of body changes indicative of ovulation and/or impending menstruation), lactational amenorrhea, surgical sterilization, abstinence, and the practice of coitus interruptus are considered forms of barrier method contraception.

Although the term contraception is used ...

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