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Aggression has been defined as the intention and the attempt to unduly control, harm, or destroy another individual by physical, social, emotional, or psychological means. This definition applies to aggression toward objects as well. Aggression can be active or passive; direct or indirect; and verbal or physical. Moreover, it can be carried out in an overt or covert manner. The words aggression and violence are often used interchangeably, but they actually have different meanings. For example, one can be aggressive and not be violent, yet a person who is violent is also being aggressive. Thus, aggression is the key ingredient in all violent actions. For the purpose of this entry, the type of aggression discussed herein is the type related to criminal violence.

Historically, aggression has ...

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