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According to the American Psychiatric Association (1994), substance abuse is described as follows:

A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to impairment or distress, with one or more of the following within the last year: 1) recurrent substance use leading to a failure to fulfill role obligations at work, school, or home; 2) recurrent use in physically hazardous situations (drinking and driving, for example); 3) recurrent use-related legal problems, such as arrest for disorderly conduct; and/or 4) continued use despite social or interpersonal problems recurrently being accused or made worse by the substance. (pp. 182–183)

Although most often associated with addiction, substance abuse involves behavior that can cause significant problems without causing dependence.

Conceptual Framework

It is clear that substance abuse has a significant relationship with criminal activity. Goldstein ...

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