The relationship between exposure to violence through media and violent behavior has been demonstrated empirically and is a topic of controversy and concern around the world as technological advances and violent crime reach unprecedented heights. For present purposes, violence is defined as any act or threat of action resulting in real or potential physical harm to self or other living things. Consistent with many U.S. states' laws, any sexual act with a child (an individual under the age of 18) is also considered violent. Violence in the media refers to real (e.g., televised footage of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the U.S. World Trade Center and the Pentagon) or fictitious (e.g., horror films such as Nightmare on Elm Street) violence as it occurs ...

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