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Buses are often seen as a cheap, dirty, inconvenient, and unreliable mode of transport, used only by those who have no other option. Yet Transport for London estimates that around 6 million bus journeys are made in London every day, with buses the fastest-growing mode of transport in the city. While light rail or metro systems typically exist only in the largest cities or in cities that have experienced extended periods of socialist government, bus riding is a feature of urban life globally and has been for some time: Early bus services were horse drawn, with the first proliferation of “omnibuses” occurring in European cities in the 1830s. Bus links remain important to residents in marginal communities, banlieues, suburbs, or slums, representing connections to city ...

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