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The subway, also called the metro or underground, is generally understood as an inner urban and often subterranean or elevated passenger railway system operating with high frequency. Although mostly separated from other infrastructures, the subway is embedded in the urban fabric through its links with other systems of transportation (buses, airports, railway, etc.). Beyond that, no single and all-integrating definition of the subway can be given, as they differ widely in techniques, organization, form, and usage—making each subway system unique.

Historical Background

At the end of the nineteenth century, the geography of cities was drastically transformed by emergent technologies. While elevators lifted cities upward, increasing density as buildings became taller, public transportation pushed cities outward, increasing the amount of distance that commuters could travel between home and ...

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