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Planning theory addresses key issues in planning practice such as the management of the planning process, inclusion and communication in planning, and power and conflict in planning and urban development. It developed into an academic discipline during the latter part of the twentieth century, as the physical and architectural understanding of the city was complemented with the social sciences and geography. All developed societies have an institutionalized planning system determining the roles, rights, and obligations of different stakeholders such as the public sector, private entrepreneurs, organizations, and individual citizens. Therefore, understanding the planning process and its role in urban and regional development is essential for urban studies. There are local and national variations in planning practice and legislation, however, and thus, no general theory has ...

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