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One of the most noteworthy and controversial urban phenomena since the late 1970s has been the upgrading of central cities and urban neighborhoods, which has attracted middle-class households back to the city. This trend started in the older metropolitan cities of the United States, followed by the cities of other Western countries, and later, to varying extents, expanded to cities and towns of all sizes and characters throughout the world. Neighborhood revitalization involves investments that upgrade the properties and services, which, in turn, attract higher-income people who appreciate and enjoy the amenities and quality of life that the rehabilitated neighborhood offers. Those areas where neighborhood revital-ization has occurred had previously lost significant proportions of their populations and businesses, to the point that they became areas ...

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