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Landscape architecture is broadly defined as the profession concerned with careful stewardship, wise planning, and artful design of natural and cultural environments. First use of the term as a professional title is often credited to Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux in the 1850s, describing their role in the planning and design of Central Park in New York City. Drawing on traditions in agriculture, landscape gardening, architecture, and design, the professional title grew in popularity among early practitioners responding to public health, open space, and recreation needs in rapidly developing urban environments, culminating in the formation of professional degree programs and a professional association in the United States by the close of the nineteenth century.

Although rural environments and natural reserves have historically been important areas ...

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