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There has been much heated debate among journalists, academics, and others recently on the question of who is an intellectual and whether there has been a decline in intellectual life. The trend now is toward a less prescriptive definition than the one previously accepted. The label intellectual now tends to be applied to individuals who employ their mind to learn, understand, think abstractly, or apply knowledge rather than allowing their emotions to dominate behavior, although modern psychology recognizes a more complex interrelationship between emotions and intellect, for instance, with respect to creativity. Those labeled as intellectuals are not necessarily associated with any particular field of endeavor, but they usually make some effort to communicate ideas to an audience either verbally, in writing, or artistically. Although ...

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