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Governance is a term referring to the nexus among states, civil society, and market actors who collaborate to achieve public purposes. Over the past three decades, urban studies scholars and practitioners have given significant attention to the question of how governments can more effectively provide public services and be receptive to rapidly changing urban populations in resource-poor, local environments. In the context of globalization, cities must respond to the pressures of growth, economic restructuring, service needs, and the demands for representation of an increasingly transnational and multiethnic population. They must do so in a context of rising labor costs and capital mobility and declining public resources. The response has been a shift away from purely state- or market-led approaches to service provision and toward “multiple ...

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