Epidemiology is defined as the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases and events in populations. Genetic epidemiology is closely associated with traditional epidemiology, but focuses on the genetic determinants of disease and the joint effects of genes and nongenetic environmental factors on disease occurrence. In particular, the biological factors that underlie the action of genes and known mechanisms of inheritance are considered. Noteworthy is the way in which biology is factored into this research. In genetic epidemiology, this includes family pedigree studies, twin studies, studies of genetic polymorphisms, and other methods. Knowledge of genetics is important for understanding new medical developments and treatments for trauma exposures. All psychological traits, states, and outcomes have biological components.

Before information about DNA became available, scientists studying genetic ...

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