Caregivers to those who have been traumatized include a wide variety of professionals, as well as non-professionals, such as family members. Emergency medical technicians, paramedics, firefighters, law enforcement officers, child welfare workers, victim advocates, counselors, doctors, nurses, other health care personnel, and chaplains are just a few examples of the many types of professions that routinely provide care for those who have been traumatized. Trauma caregivers provide witness in a variety of ways to the effects of the traumatic event(s). This witnessing can cause the helper to experience effects vicariously or contribute to what is called secondary trauma. Secondary trauma is also called compassion fatigue or vicarious trauma. Trauma caregivers often have difficulty recognizing the effects of secondary trauma in themselves. Just as trauma creates ...

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