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Shame is a double-edged sword. It is a rich emotion that evokes both the moral consciousness necessary for maintaining social order (enforcing self-valuation in relation to self-discretion, modesty, and belonging) and repercussions from personal struggles involving dishonor, humiliation, or ridicule. Shame is, on one side, externally evident in the explicit judgmental reactions from others (sometimes a form of punishment to diminish or to reflect failures or shortcomings), and on the other side, internally evident in the way people judge themselves (self-critical of actions, thoughts, feelings, or characteristics). Thus, shame has the power to direct people's behavior, form identities, evaluate social acceptability, and influence attachments to others. This entry examines shame as it relates to trauma victims.

The expression of shame appears to be contextual. Shame seems ...

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