Although evidence-based treatment guidelines indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions are likely to be the most effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychopharmacologic agents are commonly used in an effort to reduce suffering. Psychiatrists may use multiple classes of medications, reflecting the complex nature of PTSD and the human stress response. Many of the agents used in clinical practice do not have a federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indication, but they are prescribed on the basis of risk and benefit of exposure to the medication and the strength of supporting evidence in the literature. This entry explores different medication options being researched in secondary prevention, and those used in treatment of established disease. It concludes with a comment on future directions and notes considerations that ...

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