Policing has been common for centuries, with designated individuals acting to apply the police powers of the state. Police officers are empowered to protect property, reduce disorder, and enforce the law. Since the advent of modern police forces during the 18th and 19th centuries, great emphasis has been placed on the independence and autonomy of these agencies—at least in part to emphasize the self-sufficiency and integrity of police forces, which in earlier times were often accused of graft, corruption, and dishonesty. As crime has become more sophisticated, often crossing borders and using a variety of systems and procedures to produce ill-gotten gains, joint force policing and integrated models of fighting crime have grown in popularity. Combining the skills of various agencies and individuals permits law-enforcement ...

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