Internationalized criminal courts, otherwise known as “hybrid” or “mixed” criminal courts, are a recently developed method of prosecuting persons charged with international and national crimes. They are national criminal courts that include international components. Historically, states prosecuted persons charged with international or national crimes in their national courts. Multinational and international criminal courts evolved in the 20th century for the prosecution of international crimes. The first multinational criminal court to prosecute international crimes was the International Military Tribunal at Nüremberg, which was established on August 8, 1945, by the Allied victors of World War II to prosecute major Nazi war criminals. This court joined military jurisdictions from four states: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France.

Three significant international criminal courts ...

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