Throughout human history, there have been numerous acts of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. Prior to the 20th century, most of these crimes went unpunished. Between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century, through such treaties as the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, certain acts were defined as war crimes. It was not until World War II and the Holocaust inflicted by Nazi Germany against the Jews and various other racial and ethnic groups, however, that the crime of genocide was defined and recognized. At the end of World War II, the Nazi leaders were tried, judged, and punished by the Nüremberg Tribunal, which formally recognized such crimes. Shortly after World War II, the United Nations (UN) and the International Court ...

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