Both a criminal act and a civil wrong, art and antiquities fraud is one of the most significant types of transnational crime and an epidemic plaguing the art world. Accounting for an estimated loss of hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars annually, it extends to all deceptive activities involving, or relating to, works and items of artistic, ethnographic, archaeological, or historical value. These activities vary in complexity and sophistication, occasionally involving foreign jurisdictions and multinational criminal networks.

There are numerous definitions in respect of the meaning and scope of the word art. Classic accounts usually identify art with visual expressions of human creativity, such as paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, photographs, and engravings. This notion takes various shapes and turns once it is incorporated into legal statutes. ...

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