According to data collected and analyzed by the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately one third of all women become victimized by gender-based violence (GBV) at least once in their lifetimes. GBV derives primarily from a variety of gender-role ideologies that subordinate women, connotations of masculinity that imply degradation of women, and acquired social norms, especially when associated with conflict. Such activities become reinforced through blaming the victim, communal shunning of the victim, instilled fear of retaliation, and a lack of administered justice from law enforcement, especially for poor women.

Refugees or displaced persons are more vulnerable because their environments are less secure. Practices such as foot binding, wife beating, and female genital mutilation have tradition and custom as their basis, despite the persistent pain and ...

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