The European (EU) Union was established by the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, with origins in earlier supranational institutions, such as the European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community. Under the principle of supremacy, the national courts of EU member states are required to enforce treaties for those member states that have ratified them and uphold the laws established therein, with certain exceptions when there is a conflict with the member state's constitution. The treaties that established the EU confer upon it the power to enact legislation affecting member states, as well as legal personality—the capacity to sign international treaties and agreements that likewise bind its member states.

The EU thus has a unique ability and responsibility to deal with transnational crime involving those ...

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