Deportation refers to the forced removal of people, either individuals or collectives, from a specific geographic area, typically a region, country, or nation. Deportations in the modern period have been initiated and carried out usually by nation-state bodies, such as ministries of immigration or citizenship or through agencies of border security. All modern states reserve for themselves the right and capacity to determine residency and citizenship, and as part of this right they assert the right to deport noncitizens, even those who have maintained long-term residency. Often the subjects of deportation have no recourse, with limited access to evidence, trials, hearings, or appeals. Such rights are denied on the basis of the subject's lack of citizenship and, therefore, lack of citizenship rights within the country ...

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