Transnational crime has historically been dominated by men. However, there is a growing awareness of women's presence and participation. Women are most visible in research and literature on transnational crime as victims. This entry describes the role of gender among those who are active participants in transnational crime.

Women are present in most aspects of transnational crime, although research on the nature of women's involvement is in the early stages of development. Some researchers in the area have claimed that the numbers of women involved in transnational crime has increased in recent decades. There are three dominant hypotheses put forward to explain these changes. The first is that wider changes in the position of women in society have driven women's involvement in illegal activities. In other ...

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