Although legal scholars and policy analysts pointed out the link between transnational crime and security threats well before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the 9/11 attacks had a profound impact on the international mind-set regarding South Asian transnational crime. A consensus grew around the idea that transnational terrorism originated from Pakistani Islamic extremists, and the very events of 9/11 acted as a catalyst for those who had earlier argued that a military response should be prepared not only against traditional military attacks but also against transnational crime, especially transnational organized crime, insurgency, and terrorism.

It was concluded that cross-border terrorism in India as well as sectarian conflicts and to some degree also leftist insurgencies might all be linked to top leaders residing in ...

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