Sanction is a generic term encompassing the non-forcible coercive measures adopted by a state or collective of states for the purpose of altering the policies or practices of a targeted entity. There is an emerging trend among international authorities to apply the term countermeasures to coercive measures imposed by a single state and reserve the term sanctions for measures implemented collectively through a regional or international organization. The expression sanction regime is today widely used when discussing both unilateral and collective coercive measures.

Sanction regimes have been maintained by “senders” (or “sanctioners”) to achieve a range of goals, including the suppression of terrorism, the protection of human rights, the restoration of democratically elected governments, and the promotion of compliance with treaties and the precepts of ...

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