A state's ability to prosecute and punish those who commit crimes outside the borders of the prosecuting state is limited. Typically, international law addresses the regulation of actions that transcend international boundaries. While it is often noted that international crimes are not required to be transnational crimes per se, often there is a strong relationship between the two. Crimes against humanity, slavery, and apartheid are so egregious that they may be included in both areas. In other words, it could be argued that the widespread economic, political, and sociological implications and effects blur the distinctions between international crime and transnational criminality. Consequently, issues related to terrorism and international security present challenges necessitating the application of similar foundational elements.

The United Nations (UN) was formed in 1945, ...

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