Marine pollution and climate change are recognized as two of the four primary threats to the world's oceans, along with overfishing and habitat destruction. Shipping stands with fishing as the most intensive human uses of the planet's oceans. Shipping is a major contributor to marine pollution as well as to climate change and is a major source of water and air pollution. Among the pollution and waste resulting from shipping are emissions of air contaminants, including sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons; chemical wastes released as part of regular operational processes, including industrial cleaning agents used in the upkeep of ships' mechanical operations as well as household chemicals used in cleaning human quarters; releases of solid waste materials, including onboard garbage; the intentional ...

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