Immunization is one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century, saving between 2 and 3 million lives every year. It is a process that makes a person immune to an infectious disease and typically is carried out by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines are highly regulated biologic products prepared from either killed or weakened live microorganisms, or their toxins. They are administered either orally, as injection, or nasal spray to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease. Before vaccines became available, many people, particularly children, died from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as diphtheria, measles, and polio, among others. Therefore, the objective of immunization is to prevent, control, or eradicate the VPDs. Countries have their own immunization programs to reduce the ...

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