Environmental policies involve complex and interrelated networks of decisions enacted by explicit or implicit, formal or informal actions. The development and differentiation of environmental policies in the last 40 years have affected tourism, influencing its industry as a whole. In general terms, two macroprocesses can be detected focusing on the relationship between tourism and the political/normative programs intended for environmental preservation.

The first one involves the growth of the mass-tourism market since the 19th century. Entrepreneurs have allowed a growing number of people from Western countries to spend their holidays abroad. Natural and cultural heritage became “goods” with an exchange value and travelers are able to buy parts of the local life experience. Commodification of places, animals, natural beauty, and cultural traditions were and are enhanced ...

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