One of the most pervasive elements of international travel is customs and immigration procedures. Many travelers see this as a necessary inconvenience that can dampen their mood or add layers of bureaucracy to their itineraries. Some view the experience as intimidating and stressful, while others consider it an important part of the experience, even lending a degree of appeal to traveling abroad. Customs deals with the cross-border transportation of goods. Immigration, on the other hand, manages the trans-boundary movement of people, although the agencies in charge of both typically collaborate in managing international borders. Together they are often referred to as “border formalities” or “entry procedures” and take place at land borders, seaports, and airports. In some countries, a single agency is assigned to deal ...

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