Culture shock is an expression and concept used in multiple disciplines, including anthropology, psychiatry, political theory, media theory, marketing, literature (especially science fiction), and, finally, tourism. Generally speaking, culture shock results from transferring certain qualities between two separate cultures, where culture can be defined as any closed and consistent system, be it biological, social, economic, or artistic. Culture shock can involve distinct and different cultures that may be at different stages of cultural progress, occurring when, for example, a young Eskimo living in a traditional community in Alaska goes to the mainland United States for studies.


Four different outcomes of encounters with the culture of others can be defined based on history: genocide, assimilation, segregation, and integration, according to Stephen Bochner. Other responses described in encountering ...

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